A Study Index of Fred Coulter’s Passover

•March 9, 2021 • Leave a Comment

A Study Index of Fred Coulter’s Book — “The Christian Passover

What Does Passover Mean? When Should Passover Be Observed — the 14th or the 15th? 

The Christian Passover
By Fred R. Coulter 
York Publishing Company
Third Edition 2010 

With over 50 years in the ministry, Fred Coulter has written a comprehensive book on Passover and since then has been the flagship for those who keep Passover on the early fourteenth of Nisan. His book is now over 28 years, spread over three editions, and claimed to have covered all and every issue of the Passover. I pretty much agree with him, so I started critiquing his book sometimes from mid-2019. And I post my critiques on the web for others to study. Readers could then make up their own mind.

On the issue of erev it is defined by the Orthodoxy as “after noon and until nightfall.” Between the two eves (erevs) is the time between the eve of the first decline of the day and the eve of the onset of the night. There are two evenings, one from the time the sun begins to decline, the other is after the sun has gone down. 

Day / Night | Learn english, English vocabulary, Telling time in english
The time between the eve of the First Evening and eve of the Second Evening is the time “between the two evenings.”

“Between the two evenings” is from the time when the sun begins to incline towards the west, which is from the sixth hour [noon or 12 o’clock] and onwards. It is erevim [plural – “evenings”] because there are TWO EVENINGS, for “between the two evenings” is from the time that the sun begins to decline as one evening, and the other evening is after the sun has GONE DOWN. It is the space of time in between which is meant by “between the two evenings.”

Fred Coulter has addressed this issue at great length. Of course, like most in the CoG Communities, he has a contrary view. He says:

 And since God Himself said that they would eat flesh during the time known as ben ha arbayim— ”between the two evenings,” or “between the setting-times”—we know without a doubt that ben ha arbayim IS THE TIME PERIOD THAT IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS SUNSET. (The Christian Passover, pg 47, the pdf 538 page online version).

The chronological events that are recorded in Exodus 16 clearly define ben ha arbayim — “between the two evenings,” or “between the setting times” — as the time period that immediately FOLLOWS sunset, or ba erev. (Pg 48).

I have critiqued Fred Coulter’s work and put them all on my Blog site HERE:

In fact I have critiqued all the relevant chapters, on many other issues upto chapter 19 (the NT Passover) in twelve postings (a to l) and are all on the above Blog site. Just click on the right hand side on “Passover” on the above Blog and roll down — they (covering all issues) are all there; or click below HERE for the relevant chapters.

Table of Contents

Chapter One   

Passover, its Importance a Matter of Life and Death
— “to eat the Passover”— Exodus 12:43;
— ”to kill the Passover” — Exodus 12:21, II Chronicles 35:6;
— “to sacrifice the Passover” — Deuteronomy 16:2;
— “to roast the Passover” — II Chronicles 35:13.

Chapter Two   

The Real Meaning of “Passover”
— and when I see the blood, I will “pass over” (H6452) you Ex 12:13; the Lord will pass over (H6452) the door Ex 12:23; or
— it is the Lord’S Passover H6453 Ex 12:11.
The Ordinances of keeping the Passover

     A Critique of Chapter One and Two (a) HERE ~ ~

Chapter Three   

What is Ben Ha Arbayim (H6153) — “Between the Two Evenings”
— dusk? twilight?
— “after noon and until nightfall”?

Chapter Four   

What is ba erev — at even?
What is ben ha arbayim — between the evening?
— is ben ha arbayim immediately follows erev?
Passover Ordinances

    A Critique of Chapter Three and Four (b) HERE ~ ~

Chapter Five   

What is Evening (erev) and Morning (boqer)?
Exodus 16 and Numbers 11 — the Quails and Manna
How is Erev Different from Ben Ha Arbayim?

    A Critique of Chapter Five (c) HERE ~ ~

Chapter Six   

“At sunset, or ba erev, is a very short period of time.” Is it no more than 3-5 minutes?
“The length of time for ben ha arbayim varies around 30-40 minutes?”

Chapter Seven   

Who are behind Everett Fox translation and Schocken Books?
And Schocken Bible?
What Does “Night” (Lailah) and “Morning” (Boqer) Mean?

    A Critique of Chapter Six and Seven (d) HERE ~ —— ~

Chapter Eight 

The Exodus Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread
Are they distinct or composite Feast/s?

Chapter Nine   

Were some of the “Ordinances” at Exodus changed?
Are All Blood from the Sacrifices Required To Be Sprinkled at the Altar?

    A Critique of Chapter Eight and Nine (e) HERE ~ —— ~

Chapter Ten  

Changes in the Old Testament Passover Observance
Was the Passover Killed on an Early or a Late 14th Nisan?
Who started exerting that Passover and Unleavened Bread are Separate Feasts?
Testimonies from Jewish “Authorities” — Who Are They?

    A Critique of Chapter Ten (f) HERE ~ —— ~

Chapter Eleven   

The Fallouts of Jeroboam who refused Jerusalem as Center of Worship
Composite nature of Passover even in Exodus 12!
The Effect of Fleeing the “Bondage of Judaism” —The Reform Movement

   A Critique of Chapter Eleven (g) HERE ~ —— ~

Chapter Twelve 

When was a Centralised Passover Instituted?
Was the Temple Passover by Hezekiah Pleasing to God?

  Chapter Thirteen   

Had the Temple Passover Faulted by Josiah?

    A Critique of Chapter Twelve and Eleven (h) HERE ~ —— ~

Chapter Fourteen   

Why the Passover Composite Character in Deuteronomy 16?
Was Deuteronomy 16 Edited by Ezra?
The Birth and Testimony of the Aramaic Targum

Chapter Fifteen

How the Samaritans infiltrated the Jewish Community
More on Deuteronomy 16 Being “Edited” and “Vandalised”

       A Critique of Chapter Fourteen and Fifteen (i) HERE  ~ —— ~

Chapter Sixteen   

Why was Passover Not Practiced in Babylon for the Exiled?
Was Jerusalem the only Place to offer a Sacrifice?
Is Passover also a Sacrifice?

Chapter Seventeen 

The Testimonies from the Targum and Josephus
Leviticus 17 Any Sacrifice inside or outside the Camp
Deuteronomy 16:1-8 A Comparison with the Samaritan Version

     A Critique of Chapter Sixteen and Seventeen (j) HERE  ~ —— ~

Chapter Eighteen

Had Ezra instituted any New Passover Law?
Would endtime “Generation of vipers” be Cast into the Fire?
Why did John Express Passover as the “Passover of the Jews”?

    A Critique of Chapter Eighteen (k) HERE ~ —— ~

Chapter Nineteen

Jesus’ Last Supper — Was that Meal a Passover?
John 19:14 — What Time was the Sixth Hour?
Was the 70 AD Inferno a Microcosm of the endtime Great Tribulation?
Did Jesus Kept the Passover? Or
Was He Offering Himself as the Passover?

    A Critique of Chapter Nineteen (l) HERE ~ —— ~

APPENDIX JESUS’ MISSING HOURS

JESUS’ LAST HOURS — timeline of Christ’s Missing Hours Before He died
Was That Meal a Passover Meal?
Was That Night the Fourteenth?
Was John Using Roman Hours in John 19:14?
Why the Sadducaic Chief Priests stay outside the Praetorium?


For a Full Timeline Analysis, Click HERE  ~ —— ~

~~~~~

THAT NIGHT WASN’T THE FOURTEENTH!

•March 9, 2021 • 1 Comment

THAT NIGHT WHEN CHRIST ATE HIS LAST SUPPER WAS ON THE THIRTEENTH!

THE MISSING HOURS OF CHRIST

This presentation, in detail with all the events leading up to Jesus’ Crucifixion, is to prove that that night Jesus took the Last Supper with His disciples, was the night on the thirteenth of Nisan. 

It is IMPOSSIBLE to be on the fourteenth as the High Priests (Annas and Caiapas), chief priests and other Sadducees were also awaiting to partake their passover, which would be on the night of the Fourteenth. These Sadducees refused to enter the Preatorium lest they be defiled and couldn’t take the passover.

There are other reasons for this IMPOSSIBILITY but they are presented along with the events, with timing — hour and day — conveyed in this presentation.

Second, that night when Jesus and His disciple sat down and ate, the Scriptures say it was a supper. Yes, just a supper!

Finally, if that night had been the Passover night, Jesus would have infringed one of the ordinances — that the bones should be burned in the morning (boqer), Exodus 12:10, 22; Numbers 9:12. If that night was a Passover night, all our hopes and dreams about eternal life would have been flushed down the toilet.

Beside, there were the missing 18 hours that most students of the Gospels missed.

Below are the comprehensive evidence, right from the Scriptures:

Jesus’ Last Hours 

(The Hours Usage are Jewish Reckoning; Usages in Roman Reckoning are AM (Ante Meridiem “before noon”) and PM (Post Meridiem “after noon”). 

Prelude to the Passover

Matthew 26:1 (KJ21) And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, He said unto His disciples,

2 “Ye know that after two days is the Feast of the Passover, and the Son of Man is betrayed to be crucified.”

3 Then the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people assembled together unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,

4 and consulted that they might take Jesus by stealth and kill Him.

5 But they said, “Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.”

Jesus anointed in Bethany

Matthew 26:6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper,

7 there came unto Him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on His head as He sat at meat.

8 But when His disciples saw it, they were indignant, saying, “To what purpose is this waste?

9 For this ointment might have been sold for much and given to the poor.”

10 When Jesus perceived this, He said unto them, “Why trouble ye the woman? For she hath wrought a good work upon Me.

11 For ye have the poor always with you, but Me ye have not always.

12 For in that she hath poured this ointment on My body, she did it for My burial.

13 Verily I say unto you, wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, which this woman hath done, be told as a memorial of her.”

Judas promised 30 pieces of silver

Matthew 26:14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests

15 and said unto them, “What will ye give me if I will deliver Him unto you?” And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.

16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray Him.

Disciples prepared for Passover

Matthew 26:17 Now on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto Him, “Where wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee to eat the Passover?”

18 And He said, “Go into the city to a certain man and say unto him, ‘The Master saith, “My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at thy house with My disciples.”’”

19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them, and they made ready the Passover.

The Last Supper Monday (6:00 PM) Even, 13th Nisan

Luke 22:14 And when the hour had come, He sat down and the twelve apostles with Him.

15 And He said unto them, “With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer” 

If that night was the Passover night, Jesus would had broken one of the ordinances according to Numbers 9:12: “They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.”

They left early and if Jesus had sinned, all the destinies of humanity would be flushed down the toilet.

Second, if they had killed the lamb at sunset at 6 PM as the CoG Communities believe, it would be a miracle if they could have the lamb roasted and meal ready before 10 PM, but for this exercise, let’s start at 6 PM when supper was served, because that night could only be the thirteenth.

Taking into consideration a very unusual word for “desire” is epithumia in the Greek, which is something forbidden, perhaps this verse should be translated as: “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; but I’m saying to you now, I am forbidden and denied this privilege, and I will no longer eat with you until we’re all in the kingdom of God.” — for a detailed exegesis see endnote.

16 for I say unto you, I will not anymore eat thereof until it be fulfilled in the Kingdom of God.” John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them unto the end.

John 13:2 And supper (G1173) being ended, and the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray Him other translations say “during supper.” It was just as a supper as in John 12:2 where Martha and Mary made Him a supper (G1173) in Bethany after raising Lazarus. If that night was a passover why didn’t the Gospel writers say so to differentiate it from other ordinary supper?

3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands and that He had come from God and was going to God,

Foot washing (only recorded by John)  (7:00 PM)  Monday Night, 13th Nisan

John 13:4 rose from supper (G1173) and laid aside His garments, and took a towel and girded Himself.

5 After that He poured water into a basin, and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel wherewith He was girded.

Among Eastern people it was customary, before eating, to wash the feet; and to do this, or to bring water for it, was one of the rites of hospitality. See Genesis 18:4; Judges 19:21. The reasons for this were, that they wore “sandals,” which covered only the bottom of the feet, and that when they ate they reclined on couches or sofas. It became therefore necessary that the feet should be washed before food. But here, none of His disciples was willing to play host and doing the act of hospitality, hence Jesus volunteered after supper.

6 Then came He to Simon Peter, and Peter said unto Him, “Lord, dost Thou wash my feet?”

7 Jesus answered and said unto him, “What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter.”

8 Peter said unto Him, “Thou shalt never wash my feet.” Jesus answered him, “If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me.”

9 Simon Peter said unto Him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.”

See the source image

10 Jesus said to him, “He that is washed needeth not but to wash his feet, but is clean every whit. And ye are clean, but not all.”

11 (For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, “Ye are not all clean.”)

12 So after He had washed their feet and had taken His garments and had sat down again, He said unto them, “Know ye what I have done to you?

13 Ye call Me Master and Lord; and ye say well, for so I am.

14 If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another’s feet.

15 For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.

16 Verily, verily I say unto you, the servant is not greater than his lord, neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.

17 If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.

Judas left to betray Jesus ( 7:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

John 13:18 “I speak not of you all. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He that eateth bread with Me hath lifted up his heel against Me.’

19 Now I tell you before it comes that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am He.

20 Verily, verily I say unto you, he that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth Me; and he that receiveth Me, receiveth Him that sent Me.”

21 When Jesus had thus said, He was troubled in spirit, and testified and said, “Verily, verily I say unto you that one of you shall betray Me.”

22 Then the disciples looked at one another, not knowing of whom He spoke.

23 Now there was leaning on Jesus’ bosom, one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved.

24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom He spoke.

25 He then, leaning on Jesus’ breast, said unto Him, “Lord, who is it?”

26 Jesus answered, “He it is to whom I shall give a sop when I have dipped it.” And when He had dipped the sop, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.

27 And after the sop, Satan entered into him. Then Jesus said unto him, “What thou doest, do quickly.”

28 Now no man at the table knew with what intent He spoke this unto him.

29 For some of them thought, because Judas had the money bag, that Jesus had said unto him, “Buy those things that we have need of for the feast,” or that he should give something to the poor.

30 Judas then, having received the sop, went immediately out. And it was night.

31 Therefore when he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him.

32 If God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him.

Wine and unleavened bread (7:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

Luke 22:17 And He took the cup, and gave thanks and said, “Take this, and divide it among yourselves;

18 for I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the Kingdom of God shall come.”

19 And He took bread, and gave thanks and broke it and gave it unto them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you. This do in remembrance of Me.”

20 Likewise also He took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new testament in My blood, which is shed for you.

21 But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth Me is with Me on the table.

22 And truly the Son of Man goeth as it was determined; but woe unto that man by whom He is betrayed!”

23 And they began to inquire among themselves which of them it was that should do this thing.

24 And there was also a contention among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.

25 And He said unto them, “The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and they that exercise authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’

26 But ye shall not be so; but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.

27 For who is greater, he that sitteth at meat or he that serveth? Is it not he that sitteth at meat? But I am among you as He that serveth.

28 “Ye are they that have continued with Me in My temptations.

29 And I appoint unto you a Kingdom, as My Father hath appointed unto Me,

30 that ye may eat and drink at My table in My Kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

A new commandment (8:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

John 13:33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek Me; and as I said unto the Jews, ‘Whither I go ye cannot come,’ so now say I to you.

34 A new commandment I give unto you: that ye love one another, as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.

35 By this shall all men know that ye are My disciples: if ye have love one for another.”

Prophecy about Peter denying Christ 

Luke 22:31 And the Lord said, “Simon, Simon! Behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat.

32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not; and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.”

33 And Peter said unto Him, “Lord, I am ready to go with Thee, both into prison and to death.”

34 And He said, “I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day before thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest Me.”

Christ’s instruction to the disciples (8:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

Luke 22:35 And He said unto them, “When I sent you without purse and pack and shoes, lacked ye anything?” And they said, “Nothing.”

36 Then said He unto them, “But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it and likewise his pack; and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one.

37 For I say unto you that this that is written must yet be accomplished in Me: ‘And He was reckoned among the transgressors.’ For the things concerning Me have an end.”

38 And they said, “Lord, behold, here are two swords.” And He said unto them, “It is enough.” 

Thomas Coke Commentary on Luke 22:38. Lord, behold, here are two swords.— Our Lord’s disciples, mistaking his meaning about the swords, replied, they had two: the reason why they had any at all, probably, was, that they might defend themselves against robbers in their journey from Galilee and Perea, and from the beasts of prey which in those parts were very frequent and dangerous in the night time: it afterwards appears, that one of these swords was Peter’s. See John 18:10. Our Lord replies to the disciples, “It is enough for weapons of this sort; my chief intent is, to direct you to another kind of defence; even that which arises from piety and faith.” This is strongly intimated by our Lord’s saying that two swords were sufficient; which, it is evident, they could not have been for so many men, had our Lord meant what he said in a literal sense.

They sang a hymn and left (9:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

Matthew 26:30 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out unto the Mount of Olives.

One of the Passover ordinances would be broken if that night was a Passover:

“They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it” Numbers 9:12.

Jesus and His disciples left for the Garden of Gethsemane and according to most timeline it was around 9:00 PM. Further, they left without burning any food remains or the bones, infringing one of the Passover ordinances according to Exodus 12:10, 22; Numbers 9:12. If that night was a Passover night, all our hopes and dreams about eternal life would be flushed down the toilet. OBVIOUSLY IT WASN’T A PASSOVER NIGHT. THANK GOD for this.

More discourse (9:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

John 14:1 “Let not your heart be troubled. Ye believe in God; believe also in Me.

2 In My Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.

3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you unto Myself, that where I am, there ye may be also.

4 And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know.”

5 Thomas said unto Him, “Lord, we know not whither Thou goest; and how can we know the way?”

6 Jesus said unto him, “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no man cometh unto the Father, but by Me.

7 If ye had known Me, ye should have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye know Him, and have seen Him.”

8 Philip said unto Him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it sufficeth us.”

9 Jesus said unto him, “Have I been so long a time with you, and yet hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, ‘Show us the Father’?

10 Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak unto you I speak not of Myself; but the Father that dwelleth in Me, He doeth the works.

11 Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me; or else believe Me for the very works’ sake.

12 Verily, verily I say unto you, he that believeth in Me, the works that I do he shall do also; and greater works than these shall he do, because I go unto My Father.

13 And whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.

14 If ye shall ask anything in My name, I will do it.

15 “If ye love Me, keep My commandments.

16 And I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you forever”

17 even the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him. But ye know Him, for He dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

18 “I will not leave you comfortless; I will come to you.

19 Yet a little while and the world seeth Me no more, but ye see Me. Because I live, ye shall live also.

20 At that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.

21 He that hath My commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me; and he that loveth Me shall be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will manifest Myself to him.”

22 Judas (not Iscariot) said unto Him, “Lord, how is it that Thou wilt manifest Thyself unto us, and not unto the world?”

23 Jesus answered and said unto him, “If a man love Me, he will keep My words; and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him and make Our abode with him.

24 He that loveth Me not, keepeth not My sayings. And the Word which you hear is not Mine, but the Father’s who sent Me.

25 “These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you.

26 But the Comforter, who is the Holy Ghost whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

27 “Peace I leave with you; My peace I give unto you, not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.

28 Ye have heard how I said unto you, ‘I go away and come again unto you.’ If ye loved Me, ye would rejoice because I said, ‘I go unto the Father,’ for My Father is greater than I.

29 And now I have told you before it comes to pass, that when it is come to pass, ye might believe.

30 “Hereafter I will not talk much with you, for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in Me.

31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, as the Father gave Me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.

More discourse (9:30 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

John 15:1 “I am the true vine, and My Father is the husbandman.

2 Every branch in Me that beareth not fruit He taketh away; and every branch that beareth fruit, He purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

3 Now ye are clean through the Word which I have spoken unto you.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is pictures-of-jesus-gethsemane-958589-wallpaper.jpg

4 “Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abide in the vine, no more can ye, unless ye abide in Me.

5 “I am the vine, ye are the branches. He that abideth in Me and I in Him, the same bringeth forth much fruit, for without Me ye can do nothing.

6 If a man abides not in Me, he is cast forth as a branch and is withered; and men gather them and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

7 If ye abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

8 Herein is My Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be My disciples.

9 “As the Father hath loved Me, so have I loved you. Continue ye in My love.

10 If ye keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love, even as I have kept My Father’s commandments, and abide in His love.

11 These things have I spoken unto you, that My joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.

12 “This is My commandment: that ye love one another, as I have loved you.

13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

14 Ye are My friends if ye do whatsoever I command you.

15 Henceforth I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth; but I have called you friends, for all things that I have heard of My Father, I have made known unto you.

16 Ye have not chosen Me, but I have chosen you and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit and that your fruit should remain, that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in My name, He may give it to you.

17 These things I command you, that ye love one another.

18 “If the world hates you, ye know that it hated Me before it hated you.

19 If ye were of the world, the world would love his own; but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.

20 Remember the word that I said unto you: ‘The servant is not greater than his lord.’ If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept My saying, they will keep yours also.

21 But all these things will they do unto you for My name’s sake, because they know not Him that sent Me.

22 If I had not come and spoken unto them, they would not have sin, but now they have no cloak for their sin.

23 He that hateth Me hateth My Father also.

24 If I had not done among them the works which no other man did, they would not have had sin; but now they have both seen and hated both Me and My Father.

25 But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law: ‘They hated Me without a cause.’

26 “But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth who proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me.

27 And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning.

More discourse (9:30 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

John 16:1 “These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not lose faith.

2 They shall put you out of the synagogues; yea, the time cometh that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.

3 And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor Me.

4 But these things have I told you, that when the time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them. “And these things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.

5 But now I go My way to Him that sent Me, and none of you asketh Me, ‘Whither goest Thou?’

6 But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.

7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is expedient for you that I go away, for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send Him unto you.

8 And when He is come, He will reprove the world concerning sin, and concerning righteousness, and concerning judgment:

9 concerning sin, because they believe not in Me;

10 concerning righteousness, because I go to My Father and ye see Me no more;

11 concerning judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.

12 “I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.

13 However when He, the Spirit of Truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth; for He shall not speak from Himself, but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak; and He will show you things to come.

14 He shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine, and shall show it unto you.

15 All things that the Father hath are Mine; therefore I said that He shall take of Mine, and shall show it unto you.

16 A little while, and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while, and ye shall see Me, because I go to the Father.”

17 Then said some of His disciples among themselves, “What is this that He saith unto us, ‘A little while, and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while, and ye shall see Me,’ and, ‘because I go to the Father’?”

18 They said therefore, “What is this that He saith, ‘A little while’? We cannot tell what He saith.”

19 Now Jesus knew that they were desirous of asking Him, and said unto them, “Do ye inquire among yourselves of what I said, ‘A little while, and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while, and ye shall see Me’?

20 Verily, verily I say unto you that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice; and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy.

21 A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come; but as soon as she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for the joy that a man is born into the world. 

22 And ye now therefore have sorrow; but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you.

23 And in that day ye shall ask Me nothing. Verily, verily I say unto you, whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in My name, He will give it to you.

24 Hitherto have ye asked nothing in My name. Ask and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full.

25 “These things have I spoken unto you in proverbs; but the time cometh when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall show you plainly of the Father.

26 In that day ye shall ask in My name, and I say not unto you that I will pray the Father for you;

27 for the Father Himself loveth you, because ye have loved Me and have believed that I came out from God.

28 I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world. Again, I leave the world and go to the Father.”

29 His disciples said unto Him, “Lo, now speakest Thou plainly and speakest no proverb.

30 Now are we sure that Thou knowest all things and needest not that any man should ask Thee. By this we believe that Thou camest forth from God.”

31 Jesus answered them, “Do ye now believe?

32 Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave Me alone. And yet I am not alone, because the Father is with Me.

33 These things I have spoken unto you, that in Me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer: I have overcome the world.”

In Gethsemene to pray (10:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

Luke 22:39 And He came out and went, as He was wont, to the Mount of Olives; and His disciples also followed Him.

Jesus’ ‘inner circle’

Mark 14:33 And He took with Him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed and very heavy of heart. — These three disciples were there during Christ’s time of prayers and distress. They were Christ’s inner circle.

34 And He said unto them, “My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death; tarry ye here, and watch.”

Jesus prayed for 3 hours (10:00 PM) Monday Night, 13th Nisan

Matthew 26:39 And He went a little farther, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt.”

40 And He came unto the disciples and found them asleep, and said unto Peter, “What, could ye not watch with Me one hour?

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41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

42 He went away again the second time and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if this cup may not pass away from Me, unless I drink it, Thy will be done.”

43 And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy.

44 And He left them and went away again, and prayed a third time, saying the same words.

Up to this point, Jesus still hoped and prayed that this cup could be taken away from Him, so He could take the Passover with His disciples. But it wasn’t granted.

Second, He sweated profusely, His blood falling to the ground, not so much as death awaited Him, but the process of tortues under the Roman soldiers that most people would fear of. Surely He knew this in advance.  

And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly, and His sweat was, as it were, great drops of blood falling down to the ground (Luke 22:44).

Then He said unto them, “My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death; tarry ye here and watch with Me.” And He went a little farther, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt” (Matthew 26:38-39). — Christ was still pleading here.

The Lord’s prayer (1:00 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

John 17:1 These words spoke Jesus and lifted up His eyes to Heaven and said, “Father, the hour is come. Glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee,

2 as Thou hast given Him power over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as Thou hast given Him.

3 And this is life eternal: that they might know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent.

4 I have glorified Thee on the earth; I have finished the work which Thou gavest Me to do.

5 And now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own Self with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was.

6 “I have manifested Thy name unto the men whom Thou gavest Me out of the world. Thine they were, and Thou gavest them to Me, and they have kept Thy Word.

7 Now they have known that all things whatsoever Thou hast given Me are of Thee.

8 For I have given unto them the Words which Thou gavest Me; and they have received them and have known surely that I came out from Thee, and they have believed that Thou didst send Me.

9 I pray for them; I pray not for the world, but for them whom Thou hast given Me, for they are Thine.

10 And all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine, and I am glorified in them.

11 And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to Thee. Holy Father, keep through Thine own name those whom Thou hast given Me, that they may be one, as We are.

12 While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Thy name. Those that Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.

13 “And now come I to Thee, and these things I speak in the world, that they might have My joy fulfilled in themselves.

14 I have given them Thy Word, and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

15 I pray not that Thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that Thou shouldest keep them from the evil.

16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

17 Sanctify them through Thy truth: Thy Word is truth.

18 As Thou hast sent Me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.

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19 And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth.

20 “Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also who shall believe in Me through their word,

21 that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that Thou hast sent Me.

22 And the glory which Thou gavest Me I have given them, that they may be one, even as We are one:

23 I in them and Thou in Me, that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that Thou hast sent Me and hast loved them, as Thou hast loved Me.

24 “Father, I will that they also, whom Thou hast given Me, be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which Thou hast given Me; for Thou loved Me before the foundation of the world.

25 “O righteous Father, the world hath not known Thee, but I have known Thee, and these have known that Thou hast sent Me.

26 And I have declared unto them Thy name, and will declare it, that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them.”

Judas’s betrayal (1.30 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

John 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where was a garden into which He entered with His disciples.

2 And Judas also, who betrayed Him, knew the place, for Jesus often resorted thither with His disciples.

3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

The high priests, Annas and Caiaphas, were known to be Sadducees and according to their beliefs they would be having their passover that night, if that night was on the fourteenth. They would be roasting their lambs for 4 to 5 hours and eating them and it would be extremely unlikely they had planned anything else on such a revered night.

Later these same high priests were said to refuse entering the praetorium, lest they be defiled to partake their passover, signifying that night could only be the thirteenth!

4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon Him, went forth and said unto them, “Whom seek ye?”

5 They answered Him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said unto them, “I am He.” And Judas also, who betrayed Him, stood with them.

6 As soon then as He had said unto them, “I am He,” they went backward and fell to the ground.

7 Then He asked them again, “Whom seek ye?” And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.”

8 Jesus answered, “I have told you that I am He. If therefore ye seek Me, let these go their way,”

9 that the saying might be fulfilled which He spoke, “Of those that Thou gavest Me, have I lost none.”

Healing of High Priest servant’s ear  (2:00 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

John 18:10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and smote the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.

11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, “Put up thy sword into the sheath. The cup which My Father hath given Me, shall I not drink it?” — Peter was there during Christ’s time of distress

12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus and bound Him,

Disciples deserted Him (2:00 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

Mark 14:50 And they all forsook Him and fled.

51 And there followed Him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him. — this disciple during Christ’s trial was probably James. 

Acts 12:2 He (Governor Herod) killed James the brother of John with the sword,

52 And he left the linen cloth and fled from them naked.

They led Him to Annas (2.30 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

John 18:13 and led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was the high priest that same year.

14 Now it was Caiaphas who gave counsel to the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

Peter followed near a fire (3:00 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. That disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. — John, shy to identify himself, was another disciple during Christ’s time of distress. 

16 But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple, who was known unto the high priest, went out and spoke unto her who kept the door, and brought in Peter.

17 Then the damsel who kept the door said unto Peter, “Art not thou also one of this man’s disciples?” He said, “I am not.”

18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals, for it was cold and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

Before Annas and Caiaphas (4:00 AM) Tuesday Early Morning, 13th Nisan

John 18:19 The high priest (identified as Annas) then asked Jesus about His disciples and about His doctrine. — Annas was trying to fish out something so as to accuse Jesus of treason and to put Him to death.

20 Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue and in the temple whither the Jews always resort, and in secret have I said nothing.

21 Why askest thou Me? Ask them that heard Me what I have said unto them. Behold, they know what I said.”

22 And when He had thus spoken, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, “Answerest thou the high priest so?”

23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why smitest thou Me?”

24 Now Annas had sent Him bound unto Caiaphas, the high priest.

Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas by marriage to his daughter. Annas and Caiaphas were Sadducees or their close allies, the Boethusiasns. And if that night was on the fourteenth, they would be having their Sadducaic passover. Their minds would be on killing, cleaning and roasting the lamb after sunset, and it would be close to insanity to think that they had planned to be troubled on something else on such an auspicious night.

Second, after Jesus’ miracle of raising Lazarus from the grave, the chief priests (John 12:10) who would certainly include Caiaphas and other Sadducees advocated putting Jesus to death. This act of raising Lazarus from death is anathema to Sadducaic teaching, because Sadducees don’t believe in any resurrection (Acts 4:1-6; 23:8).

The Sanhedrin (5:00 AM) Tuesday Before Dawn, 13th Nisan

Matthew 26:59 Now the chief priests and elders and all the council sought false witness against Jesus to put Him to death,

Mark 14:55 And the chief priests and all of the council (i.e. the entire Sanhedrin members alone would be 70 or 72, not including elders and false witnesses) sought for witnesses against Jesus to put Him to death, and found none. — It would probably take one or two hours to assemble them together, even if they all live nearby. Those days they didn’t have telephones, only runners.

Second, if that night were the fourteenth, it would be a passover night for the Sadducees, who made up a large portion of the Sanhedrin at that time. It would be inconceivable to believe that many runners could be found during the early morning hours and dared to trouble all the Sadduciac members of the Sanhedrin in their sleep. This together with the comment above on Annas and Caiaphas are strong evidence to believe that that night wasn’t possible to be on the fourteenth.

60 but found none. Yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found none. At the last came two false witnesses,

61 and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.’”

62 And the high priest (Caiaphas, Matt 28:57)  arose and said unto Him, “Answerest thou nothing? What is it which these witnesses say against thee?”

63 But Jesus held His peace. And the high priest answered and said unto Him, “I adjure thee by the living God that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.”

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Jesus before Caiaphas, chief priests, elders and the full Sandhedrin

64 Jesus said unto him, “Thou hast said; nevertheless I say unto you, hereafter shall ye see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.”

65 Then the high priest rented his clothes, saying, “He hath spoken blasphemy! What further need have we of witnesses? Behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy!

66 What do you think?” They answered and said, “He is deserving of death!”

67 Then they spit in His face and buffeted Him, and others smote Him with the palms of their hands,

68 saying, “Prophesy unto us, thou Christ! Who is he that smote thee?”

Peter denied Jesus three times (5:00 AM) Tuesday, Before Dawn, 13th Nisan

Matthew 26:69 Now Peter sat outside in the palace, and a damsel came unto him, saying, “Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee.”

70 But he denied it before them all, saying, “I know not what thou sayest.”

71 And when he had gone out onto the porch, another maid saw him and said unto those who were there, “This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth.”

72 And again he denied with an oath, “I do not know the man!”

73 And after a while came unto him those who stood by, and said to Peter, “Surely thou also art one of them, for thy speech betrayeth thee.”

74 Then he began to curse and to swear, saying, “I know not the man!” And immediately the cock crowed.

75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, when He said unto him, “Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny Me thrice.” And he went out and wept bitterly.

The best scientific evidence says that normally endogenous cycles stimulate a cock to crow in response to incremental changes in light intensity. The best bet seems to be from around 5 AM to 6 AM.

Sanhedrin condemned Him (6:00 AM) Tuesday, Dawn, 13th Nisan

Luke 22:66 And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led Him into their council, saying,

67 “Art thou the Christ? Tell us.” And He said unto them, “If I tell you, ye will not believe.

68 And if I also ask you, ye will not answer Me nor let Me go.

69 Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God.”

70 Then said they all, “Art thou then the Son of God?” And He said unto them, “Ye say that I am.”

71 And they said, “What need of any further witness? For we ourselves have heard it from his own mouth.”

The Sanhedrin sent Him to Pilate (6:00 AM) Tuesday, Dawn, 13th Nisan

Luke 23:1 And the whole multitude of them arose and led Him unto Pilate.

Judas hung himself (6:00 AM) Tuesday, Dawn, 13th Nisan

Matthew 27:3 Then Judas, who had betrayed Him, when he saw that He was condemned, repented and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,

4 saying, “I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood.” And they said, “What is that to us? See thou to that!”

5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple and departed, and went and hanged himself.

6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces and said, “It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood.”

7 And they took counsel and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in.

8 Therefore that field was called the Field of Blood unto this day.

9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him that was valued, whom they the children of Israel did value,

10 and gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord appointed me.”

Before Pilate (9:00 AM) Tuesday, 3rd hour, 13th Nisan

John 18:28 Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the praetorium (AMP, RSV, YLT, WEB). It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover. — the phases “they” from the “house of Caiaphas” would comprise the chief priests (Caiaphas and Annas), the captains of the temple (Lk 22:52) and their servants. Most in the CoG Communities identify these accusers as solely the Pharisees but evidence here shows this is erroneous.

The chief priests, the captains of the temple and their servants are all known to be Sadducees. This is another proof that the Sadduciac passover haven’t arrived, and they, too, didn’t want to defile themselves by entering a Gentile residence just before their passover where they would have kept it on night of the fourteenth!

This is a solid proof that that night could only be on THE THIRTEENTH!

29 So Pilate went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this man?” 30 They answered him, “If this man were not an evildoer, we would not have handed him over.” — Pilate would have to come out of the praetorium to speak to the multitude and he did “So Pilate went out [of the praetorium] and said” to the crowd!

31 Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.” The Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put any man to death.” 32 This was to fulfil the word which Jesus had spoken to show by what death he was to die.

33 Pilate entered the praetorium again and called Jesus, and said to him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” 34 Jesus answered, “Do you ask this of your own accord, or did others ask it to you about me?” — See, Pilate went back to the praetorium to speak to Jesus.

35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have handed you over to me; what have you done?” 36 Jesus answered, “My kingship is not of this world; if my kingship were of this world, my servants would fight, that I might not be handed over to the Jews; but my kingship is not from the world.” — the chief priests were standing outside the praetorium. “They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover” (John 18:28). So the Sadducees haven’t had their passover yet!

37 Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice.” 

Praetorium - YouTube
Only Jesus was in the Praetorium, the Sadducaic Chief Priests stayed out!

38 Pilate said unto Him, “What is truth?” And when he said this, he went out (the praetorium) again unto the Jews, and said unto them, “I find in him no fault at all. 39 But ye have a custom that I should release unto you one at the Passover. Will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?”

Most like to place the timing of this encounter with Pilate and Herod and then back to Pilate again early morning, around 5.30 to 8.30 AM. But this timing just couldn’t be so.

“How Dare You Trouble Me?” It would be inconceivable or even fanciful to think that Pilate as king of Judea could be troubled in the early morning by someone subordinate to him as traditional protocol demands. Pilate was known as a tyrant and would kill anybody at will those who displeased him. It would be far more reasonable to assume that he attended court at a reasonable hour starting at 9 AM the earliest.

Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting the nation and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ, a king.”

Jesus before Pilate

3 And Pilate asked Him, saying, “Art thou the king of the Jews?” And He answered him and said, “Thou sayest it.”

4 Then said Pilate to the chief priests and the people, “I find no fault in this man.”

5 And they became the more fierce, saying, “He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to this place.” – this stirring includes raising Lazarus from the dead, infuriating the Sadducees more than the Pharisees.

The chief priests could include Annas’ five sons (1 Eleazar ben Ananus 16-17; 2 Jonathan 37; 3 Theophilus 37-41; 4 Matthias 43; 5 Ananus ben Ananus 63-66), who at later times, also held the high priest office. Annas’ son-in-law Caiaphas 18-36-37

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(3) Theophilus ben Ananus 37-41: “A growing belief points to Theophilus ben Ananus, High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem from 37 to 41. In this tradition Theophilus would have been both a kohen and a Sadducee,” (Theophilus (biblical), Wikipedia).

(5) Ananus ben Ananus 63-66: Josephus’s account says “Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees,” (Anti 20.9.1). Wikipedia says he was the Sadducaic high priest who ordered the execution by stoning of James the brother of Jesus. Ananus was deposed as the high priest in 66 and became one of the main leaders of the Great Revolt of Judea. But in 68, he was killed during the inter-rebel civil war in Jerusalem, (Ananus ben Ananus, Wikipedia).

Josephus provides us with more details of the death of the high priesthood toward the AD 66-70 inferno: “But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the city, and plundered every house, and slew every one they met; and for the other multitude, they esteemed it needless to go on with killing them, but they sought for the high priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Ananus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. I should not mistake if I said that the death of Ananus was the beginning of the destruction of the city, and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruin of her affairs, whereon they saw their high priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city,” (Wars. Book 4, Chapter 5).

Luke 23:6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the Man were a Galilean.

7 And as soon as he learned that He belonged unto Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.

Before Herod (10:00 AM) Tuesday, 4th hour, 13th Nisan

8 And when Herod saw Jesus he was exceedingly glad, for he had been desirous to see Him for a long time, because he had heard many things about Him, and he hoped to see some miracle done by Him. — remember, in those days they only have runners in sending and receiving messages. And protocol required letters were properly written, signed and sealed before they were despatched. 

9 Then he questioned Him with many words, but He answered him nothing.

10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him.

11 And Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, and arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe and sent Him again to Pilate.

12 And on the same day, Pilate and Herod were made friends together, for before that there was enmity between them.

13 And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people,

My Favourite Painting: Jeffrey Archer - Country Life
“I find no fault in this man,” said Pilate

14 said unto them, “Ye have brought this man unto me as one who perverteth the people. And behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man concerning those things whereof ye accuse him.

15 No, nor yet Herod; for I sent you to him, and lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.

16 I will therefore chastise him and release him.”

17 (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the Feast.)

18 And they all cried out at once, saying, “Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas”

19 (who had been cast into prison for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder).

20 Pilate therefore, desiring to release Jesus, spoke again to them.

21 But they cried, saying, “Crucify him, crucify him!”

22 And he said unto them the third time, “Why? What evil hath he done? I have found no cause for death in him. I will therefore chastise him and let him go.”

23 But they were instant with loud voices, requiring that He might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed.

Pilate: Barabbas or Jesus (11:00 AM) Tuesday, 5th hour, 13th Nisan

Matthew 27:15 Now at that feast, the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would.

16 And they had then a notable prisoner called Barabbas.

17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, “Whom will ye that I release unto you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?”

18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered Him.

19 When he had sat down on the judgment seat (inside the praetorium again), his wife sent unto him, saying, “Have thou nothing to do with that just man; for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.”

20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask for Barabbas and destroy Jesus. the chief priests were always deeply involved throughout.

21 The governor answered and said unto them, “Which of the two will ye that I release unto you?” They said, “Barabbas!”

22 Pilate said unto them, “What shall I do then with Jesus, who is called Christ?” They all said unto him, “Let him be crucified!”

23 And the governor said, “Why, what evil hath he done?” But they cried out the more, saying, “Let him be crucified!”

24 When Pilate saw that he could not prevail, but rather that a tumult (disorderly agitation) was beginning, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this just person. See ye to it.”

25 Then answered all the people and said, “His blood be on us, and on our children!”

26 Then released he Barabbas unto them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified.

27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall (RSV: the praetorium), and gathered unto Him the whole detachment of soldiers.

28 And they stripped Him and put on Him a scarlet robe.

29 And when they had plaited a crown of thorns, they put it upon His head and a reed in His right hand, and they bowed their knees before Him and mocked Him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!”

30 And they spat upon Him, and took the reed and smote Him on the head.

31 And after they had mocked Him, they took the robe off from Him and put His own raiment on Him, and led Him away to crucify Him. — the scarlet robe was put on Him only temporarily

“Crucify him! Crucify him!” (12 NOON) Tuesday, 6th hour, 13th Nisan

John 19:6 When therefore the chief priests and the officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, “Crucify him! Crucify him!” Pilate said unto them, “Ye take him and crucify him, for I find no fault in him.”

7 The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.”

8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid.

9 And he went again into the judgment hall (the praetorium) and said unto Jesus, “From whence art thou?” But Jesus gave him no answer.

10 Then said Pilate unto Him, “Speakest thou not unto me? Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?”

11 Jesus answered, “Thou couldest have no power at all against Me, unless it were given thee from above. Therefore he (the chief priests) that delivered Me unto thee hath the greater sin.” — having the greater sin, the Sadducees (some Pharisees included) were wiped out in the AD 70 inferno! Also a result of “His blood be on us, and on our children!”

12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release Him, but the Jews cried out, saying, “If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend. Whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.”

13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth and sat down in the judgment seat (in the praetorium) in a place that is called the Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbath – (an extended elevated pavement by itself in front of the praetorium. This must be the place where a final verdict was made).

14 And it was the Preparation of the Passover and about the sixth hour, and Pilate said unto the Jews, “Behold your king!” (NOON 13th Nisan)

This sixth hour would be the same sixth hour where Jesus talked with the Samaritan woman at the well, established to be at NOON, when Jesus was wearied and needed a drink (John 4:6). To think that John suddenly popped up Roman time to suit a belief is just trying to be fanciful. Like a virgin who suddenly upskirts herself at an intersection, such distraction would surely result in many fatalities among the CoG Communities.

Second, Roman times uses AM (ante meridiem, meaning before midday) and PM (post meridiem, meaning past midday) to denote time. The Hours Usage in John 19:14 is Jewish Reckoning. 

Thirdly, “Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit” (Hosea 11:12). And most CoG Communities are prone to lying!

. 15 But they cried out, “Away with him, away with him! Crucify him!” Pilate said unto them, “Shall I crucify your king?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar!”

They led Him away to be crucified, but first to be flogged, including scourging and mocking —  the missing hours, probably back at the praetorium, (about 18 hours where there are no record of Him; from about NOON on the thirteenth to daybreak on the fourteenth of Nisan). And it is thus obvious that that evening, the evening where Jesus and His disciples were taking supper, were indeed a supper. There is no evidence of a Passover — no lamb, no bitter herbs — not even a Samaritan or a Sadducaic passover, where it would be on an early fourteenth of Nisan. Even the high priests (Annas and Caiapas), chief priests and other Sadducees stayed outside the praetorium lest they be defiled and wouldn’t be able to partake in their passover!

Image result for roman whip

The night before, while He prayed, His blood fell to the ground. He knew He would be flogged nearly to the point of death before they pounded the metal spikes into His flesh. He knew the prophetic words of Isaiah spoken seven centuries earlier that He would be beaten so badly that He would be “disfigured beyond that of any man” and “beyond human likeness” (Isaiah 52:14). 

Forerunner Commentary of the King James Version Isaiah 52:14:

Jesus had to die a death that was excruciatingly painful. Why? To depict the horrible pain that sin causes. It would not have served God’s purpose if He had died a painless death. The picture would have been incomplete.

Any criminal of that time would have despaired to learn he was to be crucified. Crucifixion was not only an execution, but also a method of torture. The Romans usually gave the victim an excruciating scourging first. Jesus was no exception. Before He ever touched His cross, He was scourged, beaten, and insulted.

Image result for roman whipping

Over the years we have heard quite a bit about the Roman lictor (Roman officer), the soldier charged with dispensing this dreaded punishment. He used a whip, often with imbedded pieces of metal, bone, or other sharp objects. Romans did not limit their lictors to the Israelite practice of “forty stripes save one,” nor to striking just the victim’s back. He would let the whip strike and wrap around every inch of the person’s body until he was within an inch of death.

The prophet Isaiah prophesies how Jesus appeared after the scourging: “Just as many were astonished at you, so His visage [appearance] was marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men” (Isaiah 52:14). He goes on to say that He was “wounded [pierced] for our transgressions, He was bruised [crushed] for our iniquities” (Isaiah 53:5).

Just as there were many who were appalled at him — his appearance was so disfigured beyond that of any human being and his form marred beyond human likeness — Isaiah 52:14.

Many people were shocked when they saw him. He was so scarred that he no longer looked like a person. His body was so twisted that he did not look like a human being anymore (Isaiah 52:14).

The Jews were prophesied they would mourn One whom they had rejected: “And they shall look to Me whom they have pierced; then they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only son” (Zechariah 12:10). But the Christians have nothing to mourn? Currently these endtime virgins are described as lukewarm and in need of nothing, but would they not mourn when they realise that they had been blind, wretched and naked, seeing finally that Christ had suffered far more through His torn flesh and shed blood than they had ever realised? No? Regardless, these are they being described in Revelation 3:17. “As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: or else I will spew thee out of My mouth (v16,19).”

The Lord shall smite thee with madness, and blindness, and astonishment of heart; and thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness. That was written in Deuteronomy 28:28-29. But at the endtime, all ten virgins of the endtime Laodicean church blind, wretched and naked are groping in the light.

The next morning (6:00 AM) Wednesday, Dawn, 14th Nisan

Luke 23:26 And as they led Him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.

27 And there followed Him a great company of people, and of women who also bewailed and lamented Him.

28 But Jesus, turning unto them, said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for Me, but weep for yourselves and for your children.

29 For behold, the days are coming in which they shall say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore and the breasts which never gave suck.’

30 Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us!’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’

31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?”

They led Him to be crucified (7:00 AM)   

John 19:16 Then he delivered Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus and led Him away.

17 And He, bearing His cross, went forth into a place called the Place of a Skull (which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha)

The Third hour (9:00 AM) Wednesday, 3rd hour, 14th Nisan

John 19:18 where they crucified Him and two others with Him, one on either side and Jesus in the midst.— here, Jesus was nailed to the cross, with two others besides Him

19 And Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was: Jesus Of Nazareth The King Of The Jews.

20 Then many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city, and it was written in Hebrew and Greek and Latin.

21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, “Write not ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘He said, I am King of the Jews.’”

22 Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and also His coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

24 They said therefore among themselves, “Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be,” that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, “They parted My raiment among them, and for My vesture did they cast lots.” These things therefore the soldiers did.

Mark 15:25 And it was the third hour (9 AM) when they crucified Him.

29 And those who passed by railed at Him, wagging their heads and saying, “Ah, thou that destroyest the temple and buildest it in three days,

30 save thyself and come down from the cross!”

31 Likewise also the chief priests, mocking, said among themselves with the scribes, “He saved others; himself he cannot save!

32 Let Christ, the King of Israel, descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe.” And those who were crucified with Him reviled Him.

25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His mother and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.

26 When Jesus therefore saw His mother and the disciple standing by whom He loved, He said unto His mother, “Woman, behold thy son!”

27 Then said He to the disciple, “Behold thy mother!” And from that hour, that disciple took her unto his own home.

Mark 15:33 And when the sixth hour (12 NOON) had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour (3 PM).

Luke 23:44 And it was about the sixth hour (12 NOON), and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour (3 PM). 45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

See the source image

28 After this Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I thirst.”

29 Now there was set there a vessel full of vinegar; and they filled a sponge with vinegar and put it upon a hyssop, and put it to His mouth.

Mark 15:34 And at the ninth hour (3 PM) Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?” which is, being interpreted, “My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?”

35 And some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, “Behold, he calleth Elijah.”

36 And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed and gave it to Him to drink, saying, “Let him alone. Let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.”

37 And Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.

30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, He said, “It is finished.” And He bowed His head and gave up the ghost.

Earthquakes and graves opened (3:00 PM) Wednesday, 9th hour, 14th Nisan

Matthew 27:51 And behold, the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top to the bottom, and the earth quaked and the rocks rent.

52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints who slept arose,

53 and came out of the graves after His resurrection, and went into the Holy City and appeared unto many.

54 Now when the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, saw the earthquake and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, “Truly, this was the Son of God!”

Preparation for the Passover (4:00 PM) Wednesday, 10th hour, 14th Nisan

John 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the Preparation, and so that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the Sabbath day (for that Sabbath day was a high day), besought Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away.

32 Then came the soldiers and broke the legs of the first and of the other who was crucified with Him.

33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that He was dead already, they broke not His legs,

34 but one of the soldiers with a spear pierced His side, and forthwith there came out blood and water.

35 And he that saw it bore record, and his record is true, and he knoweth that he saith truly, that ye might believe.

36 For these things were done, that the Scripture should be fulfilled: “A bone of Him shall not be broken.”

37 And again another Scripture saith, “They shall look on Him whom they pierced.”

The women watched (4:30 PM) Wednesday, 10th hour, 14th Nisan

Mark 15:40 There were also women looking on afar off, among whom were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the Less and of Joses, and Salome

41 (who also, when He was in Galilee, had followed Him and ministered unto Him), and many other women who came up with Him unto Jerusalem.

Joseph of Arimathea (5:00 PM) Wednesday, 11th hour, 14th Nisan

Mark 15:42 And now when the evening had come, because it was the Preparation (that is, the day before the Sabbath), — that Sabbath was a High Day, the beginning of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

43 Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable council member who also was waiting for the Kingdom of God, came and went in boldly unto Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.

44 And Pilate wondered if He were already dead; and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether He had been any while dead.

45 And when he learned it from the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.

46 And Joseph bought fine linen, and took Him down and wrapped Him in the linen. And he laid Him in a sepulcher which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulcher.

47 And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where He was laid.

~~~

End note: Luke 22:15-6. Here Jesus said to the disciples: 

 “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” 

What did He mean by saying “THIS Passover”? 

There are only two possibilities: 

1) He meant the upcoming Passover that very year, which had not yet arrived, as this statement was made “before the feast of the Passover” (John 13:1).

2) He meant that very meal that evening which they were partaking of – even though it was served with regular “bread,” makes no mention of lamb, or bitter herbs, which were required for a Passover meal. Second, if that meal was the Passover, Jesus and His disciples would have broken one of the Passover ordinances specified in Numbers 9:12 — moving the bones out of the house and burned them in the morning.

Fred Coulter, whose book The Christian Passover is his church’s flagship and endorsed by most of the CoG Communities, specifies it this way:

 God’s commands to Moses in Exodus 12 show us the step-by-step procedures required for keeping the Old Testament Passover.  It is clear that the act of slaying the lambs was only one part of keeping the Passover.  The nine steps for keeping the Old Testament Passover were as follows: 

1) Select an unblemished male lamb less than one year old on the 10th day of the first month (Ex 12:3). 

2) Kill the lamb on the 14th day of the first month at dusk [Hebrew ben ha arbayim, “between the two evenings”].  Share the lamb with a neighbor if one’s own family was too small to eat it.  Do not break a bone of the lamb (Ex 12:4, 6, 46). 

3) Strike the side posts and lintel of the door of the house with some of the blood (Ex 12:7). 

4) Roast the whole lamb — head and legs and edible entrails — with fire (Ex 12:9). 

5) Do not boil the meat in water or eat it raw (Ex 12:9). 

6) Eat the flesh in that night with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (Ex 12:8). 

7) Allow no alien to eat it unless circumcised (Ex 12:43-44). 

8) Eat it in the same house where it was slain. Do not carry any of it out of the house (Ex 12:46). 

9) Burn any remains, such as the bones and fat, the skin and guts, with fire by morning (Ex 12:10). (The Christian Passover, pg 19)

These were the commands of God for Israel’s first Passover.  If the children of Israel had not observed all nine steps for the Passover exactly as God commanded, the Passover would not have been fully “kept,” and the Lord would not have spared the firstborn of Israel.

At their next Passover, the first one in the wilderness after the tabernacle was set up and dedicated, the nine rules for “keeping” the Passover are called statutes and ordinances: “Let the children of Israel also keep the Passover at its appointed time.  In the fourteenth day of this month, between the two evenings, you shall keep it in its appointed time. You shall keep it according to ALL ITS STATUTES, and according to ALL THE ORDINANCES of it” (Num. 9:2-3). 

This Scripture shows that the nine rules for the Passover, here called statutes and ordinances, were to be observed in all the years that followed.  All nine ordinances were to be observed on the 14th day of the month!  It is quite clear in Numbers 9 that all the statutes and all the ordinances that were established at the first Passover were to be observed by the children of Israel.  We find no later instructions given in Scripture that in any way alter or modify the manner in which the Passover was originally commanded to be observed. (The Christian Passover, pg 19-20)

And Fred’s statements are reemphasised further: 

“And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning [sunrise]” (Ex 12:21-22),” (pg 58).

And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until sunrise [Hebrew boqer]’ ” (Ex 12:21-22). (Pg 71)

“…And none of you shall go out of the door of his house UNTIL SUNRISE….And the children of Israel went away and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, SO THEY DID” (Ex 12:22, 28).

“If any of the children of Israel had left their houses before morning, it would be recorded in the Scriptures that some of the people had disobeyed the command of God and had left their houses too soon, and therefore they had died in the plague of the firstborn.” (Pg 72)

If that night had been the Passover, that would make Jesus and His disciples break a Passover ordinance since they were only allowed to burn the bones and left their house after morning, BUT THEY DIDN’T! 

What, then, did Jesus mean when He said, “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer”? The word for “desire” in this verse is an unusual word, epithumia in the Greek, and means “a longing, especially for that which is forbidden” (see Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, #1939). 

The word for “desire” in this verse is very important to understanding the context of Jesus’ words. Says Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon, “desire, craving, longing,” “specifically for what is forbidden.” This is the “strongest expression of intense desire,” whether good or bad, says the Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Critical-Experimental Commentary. 

In other words, Jesus here was saying He desired to eat the traditional Passover with His disciples that year, but He knew that such a thing will be impossible that it was forbidden that for Him to fulfill God’s PLAN He must be dead and in the grave the evening the Passover would be eaten, and therefore it was forbidden and impossible for Him to eat that Passover with them!

Perhaps Luke 22:15-6 should be translated as:

“With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; but I’m saying to you now, I am forbidden and denied this privilege, and I will no longer eat with you until we’re all in the kingdom of God.” 

Conclusion: despite all the huffings and puffings arguing otherwise by the various CoG Communities, that night when Jesus and His disciples had their last supper, the same night He was betrayed, it wasn’t the Passover; it wasn’t on the Fourteenth night. It was just a supper as the Scriptures say, and to believe that that night was the Fourteenth is only a sweet FANCIFUL DREAM!

~~~~~

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (l)

•March 8, 2021 • 1 Comment

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (l)

Passover on the 14th or 15th?

This is the last Critique of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover.

Quotes are from Fred Coulter’s book, and some from his compatriots, all in PINK. The Scriptures, in RED, must be our primary focus and guide.

Chapters 19

This chapter starts with the preconceived notion that Jesus’ last supper was His last Passover. And Fred Coulter repeated his misconception again and again. Scriptures were cherry picked to support preexisting biases and other Biblical passages were reinterpreted and twisted to support his misconception. 

See the source image

If His last supper was a Passover, there were no words or a phrase to confirm that, such as “when they finished Passover, they sang a hymn”, “during Passover, He poured wine and break bread,” or “during Jesus last Passover, He took bread.” 

And even when Paul was referring back to that night, he wrote, “the night He was betrayed” (1 Corinthians 11:23), rather than, say, “the last Passover He kept.” Why? Strange, isn’t it?

There is evidence in early historical works that at the time John was writing his Gospel, the 14/15 Passover controversy was already a major problem. That would explain why John describes Jesus’ last Passover and the subsequent events in greater detail than the other Gospel writers.

The Gospel of John makes a clear distinction between the Passover of the Jews and the Passover that Jesus kept. The sequence of events that John records conclusively shows that Jesus did not observe the Passover at the traditional time. (The Christian Passover, pg 232)

It is correct that John’s account apparently differs from the other Gospels, but not for the reasons given above. John had to keep on emphasizing the details of Jewish feasts as different from a Samaritan counterfeit version that had been a threat for hundreds of years. John mentioned going through Samaria in detail encountering a Samaritan woman (John 4:4-40), eventually giving them the most important message: forYe worship ye know not what; we know what we worship, for salvation is of the Jews” (John 4:22). 

For us living far and away in the twenty-first century, the threats from the Samaritans aren’t real, but for John and his countrymen from Galilee they had to live with those threats, and they were real.

John shows that the Passover they were preparing to eat was recognized as the official observance of the Jews: “(Now it was the preparation of the Passover, and about the sixth hour [6 AM]). And he [Pilate] said to the Jews, ‘Behold your King!’  But they cried aloud, ‘Away, away with Him! Crucify Him!’ ” (John 19:14-15). (Pg 233)

The sixth hour is 6 AM? Here, wringing like a snake, Fred says the sixth hour is “6 AM”, but in another of his own books, it is 8.30 AM (Harmony of the Gospels, 1974, pg 219). It’s like a red-hot murderer caught and being interviewed in a police station testifying with different alibi to suit different circumstances. If Fred Coulter had not been lying with deceits, he would tell the truth that the “sixth hour” is the same as when Jesus met the Samaritan at the well — NOON! It was hot, and Jesus, being wearied and tired, asked for a drink. It was noon time, as the same time were listed elsewhere:

John 4:6 Now Jacob’s well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied with His journey, sat thus by the well; and it was about the sixth hour. — NOON

And that noon, the sixth hour, is the same in the other Gospels.

See the source image

Matthew 27:45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. — NOON TO 3 PM

Mark 15:33 And when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. — NOON TO 3 PM

Luke 23:44 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. — NOON TO 3 PM

John 19:14 And it was the Preparation of the Passover and about the sixth hour, and Pilate said unto the Jews, “Behold your king!” — NOON

The truth is that all the Gospel writers were using Hebrew time and all the “sixth hour” means 12 noon, since the hour counting starts at daybreak, at 6 AM. What a hypocrite, Fred didn’t follow his own thirteenth rule on studying the Bible 13) Do not form conclusions based on partial facts or insufficient information, or the opinions and speculations of others. (Pg 15)

Second, the chief priests (including the high priests), the captains of the temple and their servants are all known to be Sadducees. And they didn’t want to go inside the praetorium!

Then they (the chief priests, etc) led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the praetorium. It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover,” John 18:28.

This is another proof that the Sadduciac passover haven’t arrived, and they, too, didn’t want to defile themselves by entering a Gentile residence just before their passover where they would have kept it on night of the fourteenth! This is a solid proof that that night could only be on the thirteenth!

The truth then, is, since Matthew, Mark and Luke testifies that Christ was on the cross at the sixth hour, Jesus couldn’t be at the praetorium (judgement hall) at the same time. And since the crucifixion was on the fourteenth, the time at the praetorium had to be on a day before, ON THE THIRTEENTH. Then they led Him away to be crucified, but first to be flogged, including mocking and scourging — the missing hours, or for the next 18 hours — then back at the praetorium. From John 14:16 to17, there is a time gap where there is no record of Him — from about noon on the thirteenth to daybreak on the fourteenth of Nisan. A mystery of mysteries. A secret among secrets.

And that evening, the evening where Jesus and His disciples were taking supper, was indeed just a supper. There is no evidence of a Passover — no lamb, no bitter herbs, no mention of any blood on the doorposts and lintel — it was not even a Samaritan or a Sadducean Passover, where it would be on an early fourteenth of Nisan.

Jesus and His disciples were eating a meal, called a supper by the Gospel writers, is ON THE NIGHT OF THE THIRTEENTH!

Luke 22:20 Likewise also He took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new testament in My blood, which is shed for you.

John 13:2 And supper being ended, and the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray Him,

John 13:4 rose from supper and laid aside His garments, and took a towel and girded Himself.

John 21:20 Then Peter, turning about, saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following, who also had leaned on His breast at supper, and said, “Lord, who is he that betrayeth Thee?”

That meal, that last meal that Jesus took with His disciples, was called supper consistently. It was just as a supper as in John 12:2 where Martha and Mary made Him a supper in Bethany after raising Lazarus. If that night was a passover why didn’t the Gospel writers say so to differentiate it from other ordinary supper? Nothing was said it was a Passover if it really was one! How strange! Its silence speaks volume!

Jesus before the full Sandhedrin

The truth is, that night — often called the “Last Supper” night —  was on the night of the thirteenth. The following day, still on the thirteenth, Jesus was brought before Pilate, at noon, at sixth hour (John 19:14) and Jesus was led away by the Romans to be tortured by them, and then another 24 hours had passed, where He was crucified on the cross, at noon, and darkness began upon the whole land (Matthew 27:45, Mark 15:33, Luke 23:44) until the ninth hour when He died. 

And Jesus died when the Passover lamb was sacrificed. He was and is our Passover Lamb! He died exactly on the fourteenth, at even (ben ha arbayim; 3 PM) and fulfilled the symbolism of the lambs that were killed at the Temple!

Bacchiocchi fails to consider that during Jesus’ day a majority of the Jews were observing the domestic Passover at the beginning of the 14th, as commanded by God in Exodus 12. (Pg 235)

The Samaritans would keep their early fourteenth Passover at Mount Gerizim at sunset, but there is no record how the Sadduceans, the Boethusians and Herodians, would keep them, except that they would have kept it on an early fourteenth. But they were an aloof aristocracy MINORITY (not a majority) during Christ’s time, and they were confined to Jerusalem and the Temple.

When the Temple was destroyed by fire in AD 70, the Sadduceans and their compatriotes, the Boethusians and Herodians were all consumed and disappeared from history. Jesus acknowledged that the Scribes and Pharisees sat on Moses’ seat (Mathew 23:2) and thus the Seat of Moses was saved, despite their hypocrisy and fragility, along with their oracles (Roman 3:1-4). 

But not the Sadducees! The Sadducees and their compatriotes perished into the AD 70 inferno! And the CoG Communities take pride in following their interpretation of the Passover! Wouldn’t these CoG Communities follow the same fate? If not, why not? Isn’t what happened in AD 70 a microcosm of the Great Tribulation in the Last Days?

A “domestic Passover” would have to be kept in their houses “as commanded by God in Exodus 12.” Fred Coulter emphasised in Chapter 6: “There is no question that the children of Israel were in their houses when they observed the Passover.” There has been no such record of any “domestic” Passover being kept back in Galilee. And if they have to move to keep it in Jerusalem in houses, tents, or inns it would be a fake domestic Passover. A true domestic Passover would have to be kept in where there own houses, as Fred Coulter emphasises, as in Egypt. In Exodus 12:13-14 it says, “The blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you live.” And Jesus and His disciples lived in Galilee.

Praetorium - YouTube
Only Jesus was in the Praetorium, but the Sadducaic Chief Priests stayed out!

Because Bacchiocchi recognizes no other Passover than the traditional Nisan 15 observance, he concludes that Jesus’ observance of the 14th was “a special paschal meal” kept a day early in anticipation of His crucifixion. Notice: “An Early Passover Meal. A plausible resolution of the discrepancy is to assume that the last Supper was a special paschal meal eaten the evening before the official Passover meal. The anticipation of the paschal meal could have been motivated by the fact that Jesus knew He would suffer death at Passover in fulfillment of the type provided by the slaying of the paschal lamb on Nisan 14. He knew He could not possibly eat of the paschal lamb at the usual time [assuming that Jesus kept the traditional Nisan 15 Passover] and Himself be sacrificed as the true Paschal Lamb when the lambs were slain [referring to the afternoon of Nisan 14]. It was more important that Christ’s death should synchronize with the death of the Passover lambs [at the temple] than that His eating of the Passover meal synchronize with the official time of the Passover meal” (Ibid., p. 56, emphasis added). (Pg 236)

Although Bacchiocchi was right in observing how Christ’s last supper wasn’t a Passover, he wasn’t right to describe it as “an early Passover”. That night, there were no evidence of a Passover — no lamb, no bitter herbs. If lamb have been eaten at that supper, it is inconceivable that the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world didn’t have the lamb mentioned.There were no reminder of John the Baptist’s words, “Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29,36). 

There were also no mention of bunches of hyssop brushing blood on the doorposts and lintel either, neither did they remained in the house till SUNRISE, OR DAYBREAK, nor did they burnt any of the remains at daybreak, but they hurried off to the Garden of Gethsemane against all the ordinances needed to keep a “domestic Passover” — so it shouldn’t be any surprise that it wasn’t a Passover of whatever kind at all, unless it is a Simon Magus Passover, taking on a false hope with a wafer of bread and a goblet of wine that the Catholics introduced later. 

It is important to note what Fred Coulter wrote earlier in Chapter 6:

The children of Israel kept the Passover in their houses, just as the Bible records for us . . . The inspired record in Exodus 12 makes it clear that the children of Israel were not dwelling in tents at Rameses when they kept the Passover. The Hebrew word bayith, which is translated “house” or “houses” in Exodus 12, does not refer to a tent or a temporary dwelling. (Pg 62)

Amazing stuff! Even if Jesus and His disciples were eating that last supper in a house, it still doesn’t qualify keeping it bayith, “in their houses” as Fred Coulter alleges in Chapter 6, because bayith “does not refer to a tent or a temporary dwelling.” He warned in the introduction,“It is important to read with an open mind, carefully examining each Scripture as it is presented,” and “drawing conclusions only after considering all the facts,” (pg 5). 

And the “facts” Fred presented are all either self-contradictory or against a “domestic Passover.” A better question to ask is why is the end-time Church has the descriptions as being “ten virgins, waiting, waiting and waiting,” and yet described as “blind” “wretched” and “naked”? (Revelation 3:17). And where are his team — Carl and Jean Franklin, Philip Neal, Albert and Mela Cataga John, Hiedi and Sasha Vogele — is this a case of the ten virgins sleeping? — Are they “blind” “wretched” and “naked”?

Now back to Chapter 19:

The word “they” in Mark 14:12 refers to those who were killing the Passover lambs at houses, tents, or inns where the domestic Passover would be kept. Mark’s record of the killing of the lambs at the time that Jesus sent His disciples to prepare the Passover confirms that many Jews in New Testament times were observing the domestic Passover. Clearly, Jesus and His disciples did not observe a “special paschal meal” at a different time from other Jews in Jerusalem. Mark’s testimony exposes this teaching as a false doctrine of men. (Pg 238)

Okay, let’s see what Mark says in Mark 14:12; and it’s getting a bit technical:

Mark 14:12 KJV And the first (G4413 protos) day (G2250 hemera) of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?

G4413 protos could be translated as ‘a time before’ as in John 1:15 John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before G4413 me.

John 1:30 This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before G4413 me.

G2250 hemera could be translated as ‘a period of time or days’ as in Matthew 2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days G2250 of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem.

Matthew 3:1 In those days G2250 came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea,

Matthew 11:12 And from the days G2250 of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.

Matthew 23:30 And say, If we had been in the days G2250 of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.

Matthew 24:19 And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! G2250

Matthew 24:22  And except those days G2250 should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days G2250 shall be shortened.

Matthew 24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days G2250 shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:

Matthew 24:37 But as the days G2250 of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. During those 120 years Noah preached a warning message (1 Peter 3:20).

Matthew 24:38 For as in the days G2250 that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day G2250 that Noah entered into the ark,

Mark 2:20 But the days G2250 will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days. G2250

Mark 8:1 In those days G2250 the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and saith unto them,

Hence “the first (G4413 protos) day” could be translated as a period of time” – could be many days. So Mark 14:12 could or should be translated as: “Now before the Days of Unleavened Bread arrived, when they killed the Passover lamb, His disciples said to Him, ‘Where do You want us to go and prepare that You may eat the Passover’?”

Matthew 26:17 Now the first day (G4413 protos) of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?

Matthew 26:17 could be translated as: “Now before the Days of Unleavened Bread have arrived, the disciples came to Jesus, asking, Where shall we prepare for thee to eat the Passover?”

Same thing with Luke 22:7 Then came (G2064 erchomai) the day (G2250 hemera) of Unleavened Bread when the Passover lambs had to be sacrificed. 8 Jesus said to Peter and John, “Go and prepare the Passover meal for us to eat.”

G2064 erchomai could be translated “to come” or “to go” as in Matthew 2:2, 8. In Matthew 14:29 And he said, Come. G2064 And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go G2064 to Jesus.

Luke 22:7 could be translated as “As the Days of Unleavened Bread were approaching when the Passover lambs had to be sacrificed, 8 Jesus said to Peter and John, “Go and prepare the Passover meal for us to eat.””

Now back to Fred”s The Christian Passover:

It is possible that Peter and John killed the lamb themselves. However, since the guest chamber was furnished and ready, it is more likely that the master of the house had already killed the lamb by the time Peter and John arrived. 

It is probable that the lamb for Jesus’ last Passover was a very small lamb,

If the lamb was very small, the Passover meal could have been ready as early as 7:30 PM.

— The subsequent events of that night indicate that the Passover meal began early and probably ended by 9 or 9:30 PM. (Pg 240-241)

Typical of Fred Coulter’s analysis. A possibility becomes a probability and then it becomes a fact. And so in his Harmony of the Gospels, his passover started at 7.30 PM and everything ended by 9.30 PM when Jesus and His disciples sped off to the Garden of Gethsemane well before daybreak. They were to keep all the ordinances of a “domestic Passover,” shouldn’t they? 

Jesus before Pontus Pilate

“And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning [sunrise]” (Ex. 12:21-22),” Fred wrote in Chapter 6, (pg 58)

And reaffirmed again in Chapter 7:

“…And none of you shall go out of the door of his house UNTIL SUNRISE….And the children of Israel went away and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, SO THEY DID” (Ex. 12:22, 28). (Pg 64)

The killing and roasting took only one and a half hours, Fred says. Anticipated to feed 13 adults, he wrote that they only planned to have a tiny 8-day old lamb, weights only 10-12 pounds [about 5 kilos]. Have any of you roasted a leg of lambs, say just under half the weight above? I would love to hear from your experiences. More so if you have even killed a lamb, drained off the blood, skinned, cleaned and have it roasted, expected to feed thirteen adults after nightfall. If not, try it, it is an opportunity to prove the truth!

Nevermind, Fred Coulter provided his own analysis. Surely he had in mind a household during the time of the Exodus of around ten: women and children among them; here he analysed he needed close to 6 hours to roast a lamb, so back to Chapter 6:

To roast a whole lamb or kid weighing 20-30 pounds [9-14 kilos] until the meat was thoroughly done would take approximately 4-5 hours. The total time needed to have the meal ready is estimated to be from 4 and 1/2 hours at the earliest, to 5 and 3/4 hours at the latest, which includes 30-45 minutes to prepare the lamb and 4-5 hours to roast it. (Pg 67)

At the end of the Chapter 6 he concluded from an earlier question: Element # 4) How long did it take to kill, roast and eat the lambs, and to burn the bones and remains?

The Answer for Element # 4: To kill, roast and eat the lambs, and to burn the bones and remains, took from approximately 6 PM on the night of the fourteenth until 2-3 hours before sunrise, a total of 8-10 hours. (Pg 69)

See, Fred Coulter keeps on wiggling like a snake to suit different circumstances. Or is this a doublespeak? “Doublespeak is language that deliberately obscures, disguises, distorts, or reverses the meaning of words.” But in this case his distortion is everywhere. Can we trust his “analysis”? He wrote in Chapter 1: “Unfortunately, the landscape of religious history is filled with the bodies of people who have taught false doctrines, and the bodies of people who have embraced such teachings.” (Pg 14) So true with Fred’s remarkable insight, especially when he’s describing himself!

Luke records Jesus’ words at the beginning of the Passover meal: “Now when the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. And He said to them, ‘With earnest desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you that I will not eat of it again until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God’ ” (Luke 22:14-16). (Pg 241)

Did Jesus eat the Passover? If so, why didn’t they said they were partaking in the Passover during the meal? If not, what was He talking about when he said “this Passover”? 

Let’s study this; there could only be two possibilities: 

1) He meant the upcoming Passover that very season, which was approaching, as this statement was made “before the feast of the Passover” (John 13:1).

2) He meant that very meal that evening which they were partaking of – even though it was served with leavened bread (artos G740), makes no mention of the lamb, or bitter herbs, which were required for a Passover meal. 

What did Jesus mean when He said, “With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer?” Note that earlier it was the disciples, not Christ, who mentioned eating the Passover, and that Christ referred later only His desire to eat it: “Where is the guest chamber where I shall eat the Passover with My disciples?” But did Christ eat the Passover? This difference is critical. The word for “desire” is an unusual word, epithumia in the Greek, and means “a longing, especially for something forbidden” (Strong’s G1937) — a strong desire for something denied. Other examples are:

Matthew 5:28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after G1937 her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.

Matthew 13:17 For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired G1937 to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

Luke 17:22 And he said unto the disciples, The days will come, when ye shall desire G1937 to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see it.

Acts 20:33 I have coveted G1937 no man’s silver, or gold, or apparel.

1 Corinthians 10:6 Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted. G1937

James 4:2 Ye lust, G1937 and have not: ye kill, and desire to have, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, because ye ask not.

Revelation 9:6 And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire G1937 to die, but death shall flee from them.

Mark 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts G1939 of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.

The word for “desire” in Luke 22:15 is a “desire, craving, longing — specifically for what is forbidden,” says the Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Critical-Experimental Commentary.  This is the “strongest expression of intense desire,” whether good or bad. The New Testament Greek Lexicon says epithumia is, “desire, craving, longing, desiring for something forbidden.” 

In other words, Jesus desired to eat the true Biblical Passover with His disciples that year, but He knew that such a thing would be impossible — it was forbidden; it was denied — that for Him to fulfill God’s plan that He must fulfilled that Special Sacrificial Paschal, that “Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.” 

Jesus knew He was to fulfil John 1:29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. So Christ knew He would be denied, forbidden and impossible for Him to eat that forthcoming Passover with His disciples.

With all these in mind, perhaps Luke 22:15 could be translated as: “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; but I’m saying to you now, I am forbidden and denied this privilege, and I will no longer eat with you until we’re all in the kingdom of God.” 

As we continue reading the account, it is clear that the context supports this translation, and is consistent with the Greek. We are told that Jesus rose from supper (verse 4). After washing the disciples’ feet, Jesus sat down again (Greek “reclined”) to eat (verse 12). Jesus said, “The one who is eating bread with Me…” (verse 18), shows that the meal was in progress. Jesus dipped the morsel and gave it to Judas, who ate it (verse 26). (Pg 243)

Obviously Jesus and His disciples didn’t keep a “domestic Passover” back in their houses in Galilee. Neither did He keep a Passover of any kind in Jerusalem! Here they didn’t eat “with loins girded, shoes on their feet, and staves in their hands,” they didn’t take a bunch of hyssop, dipped it in the blood and strike the lintel and the two side posts, and to eat “in haste,” ready to flee.

And then they left for the Garden of Gethsemane on Mount Olives though they were supposed to remain in their house that entire night! Instead they sang a hymn where the Israelties didn’t sing any song in the original Passover in Egypt. 

🕊️ꙮ Ophanim ꙮ✡️ on Twitter | Romans, Fall of jerusalem, Ancient romans
Why wasn’t the Jerusalem AD 70 Inferno a Microcosm of the Coming Great Tribulation?

Jesus and His disciples left for the Garden of Gethsemane and according to Fred’s timeline it was around 9 – 9:30 PM. Further, they left without burning any food remains or the bones, infringing one of the Passover ordinances according to Numbers 9:12. 

“They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it” Numbers 9:12.

This is what Fred Coulter acknowledged this Passover ordinance in his earlier chapters:

“And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning [sunrise]” (Ex. 12:21-22),” (pg 58).

And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until sunrise [Hebrew boqer]’ ” (Ex. 12:21-22). (Pg 71)

 “…And none of you shall go out of the door of his house UNTIL SUNRISE….And the children of Israel went away and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, SO THEY DID”  (Ex. 12:22, 28). 

“If any of the children of Israel had left their houses before morning, it would be recorded in the Scriptures that some of the people had disobeyed the command of God and had left their houses too soon, and therefore they had died in the plague of the firstborn.” (Pg 72)

That would make Jesus and His disciples break the Passover ordinance since they were only allowed to burn the bones and other food remains and left their house only AFTER SUNRISE!  What HERESY! Fred Coulter’s definition of boqer even makes Jesus a sinner!

And he has many sleepy followers and compatriots from members of the CoG Communities: If that night was a Passover night, Jesus and His disciple would have infringed one of the ordinances of the feast, and all our hopes and dreams would have been flushed down the toilet!

And now from John Ritenbaugh’s Toilet:

Flames from a backfire consume a hillside as firefighters battle the Maria Fire in Santa Paula, California, last month. Insurers usually exclude "acts of God" from their policies.

What does “night” (that is, the Hebrew word, lailah) mean? What does “the morning” (Hebrew, boqer) mean? 

And Ritenbaugh answers his own question:

The word day is translated from the Hebrew yom. (You probably know it from “Yom Kippur.”) The word night (capitalized in my Bible, in verse 5) is lailah. Evening is ba erev, and morning is boqer. So, we have in that three verse span, yom (day), lailah (night), (evening) ba erev, and (morning) boqer.

Exodus 10:13 So Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind on the land all that day and all that night. When it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

In this verse, “day” is yom; “night” is lailah; and “morning” is boqer. So this one verse here shows a complete day and a complete night—with its next morning. With this usage, it clearly shows there is a difference between “night” and “morning”—shown right in the scriptures! Lailah and boqer are NOT the same thing. The locusts arrived at boqer (after lailah). (Passover transcript, Part 4)

~~~

We had worked our way partly through element #6, and so I want to review a portion of that element so we can have a running start on what is going to follow.

Genesis 1:3-5 Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.

Verse 5 is the one that I want to concentrate on here, just very briefly. God called the light Day.” This is the Hebrew word yom. (You are familiar with it, probably, from reading in the newspaper about Yom Kippur. Yom, meaning day. The Day of Atonement.) Then “the darkness He called Night.” This is lailah. And “the evening and the morning.” Evening there is ba erev, and morning is boqer. What we are seeing here is that the Day (yom) consists of two parts: one is dark, and one is light. The dark is called lailah; and the light is called boqer. (Passover transcript, Part 5)

Those nine steps (that John Ritenbaugh wrote), just to reiterate, were:

1. To select the lamb on the tenth day of the first month.

2. To kill the lamb “between the evenings” on the fourteenth.

3. To strike the doorposts and the lintel with the blood.

4. To roast the whole lamb with bitter herbs.

5. To eat the lamb that night.

6. To not boil the lamb, or eat it raw.

7. To burn any remains by morning.

8. No alien (no stranger, no foreigner) was to eat it unless he was circumcised.

9. They were not to leave their house until the morning. (Passover transcript, Part 3)

See the source image

Another Reminder! “They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it” Numbers 9:12.

From Frank Nelte’s Toilet:

That is not how God works!

Everything associated with the Passover (i.e. the killing, roasting, eating and disposal of any leftovers) has to take place on the same day, based on the way God counts days (i.e. from sunset to sunset). If any part of the slaughtered Passover animal was still left on the next morning, but still on the same 24-hour day, then it was to be “burned with fire” that day (see Exodus 12:10).God’s intention with this instruction in Exodus 12:10 is very obviously that the entire Passover proceedings are to be carried out and completed on one specific day, the 14th day.

~~~

Consider Exodus 12:22 again.

And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning (Hebrew word is “boqer”). (Exodus 12:22)

Now some Jewish scholars may define “boqer” as starting after midnight. But the Bible does not support that contrived definition. King David used the word ‘boqer” shortly before his death, when he wrote:

And he shall be as the light of the morning (“boqer”), when the sun rises, even a morning (“boqer”) without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain. (2 Samuel 23:4)

What is the Bible definition of “boqer”? It is “when the sun rises“. How plain is that? The claim that “boqer” starts at midnight is a perversion of the truth. King David provided the obvious meaning for “boqer”. The added expression “a boqer without clouds” shows that the obvious meaning refers to a beautiful clear sky at sunrise.

Anyone who claims “boqer” starts at midnight is not being truthful. This means that belief in a late-14th Passover requires one to believe a lie. (THE PASSOVER WAS AT THE START OF THE 14TH OF NISAN, April 2019)

That’s right, according to Fred Coulter, John Ritenbaugh and Frank Nelte, if the children of Israel were to leave their houses before the morning, they would be breaking one of the most important ordinances! And this is far more than telling a lie!

From UCG’s Toilet:

3. Can the Hebrew term for morning refer to the few hours after midnight, thereby allowing the Israelites to leave their homes before daybreak? There is no example of the Hebrew term boqer (morning) ever meaning anything but “daybreak,” “dawn” or “towards dawn . . .  The term boqer is used for the light portion of the day in Genesis 1 and is never used in the place of night. In Exodus 12, the firstborn were killed at midnight (middle of the night and not the dividing line between night and morning). The Israelites were told not to leave their homes until morning, not after midnight, or after the firstborn have died. God was very clear in the command that they were not to go out until morning—daybreak.” (Passover of Exodus 12, Study Paper by UCG, pg 42).

According to the teachings of UCG and other CoG Communities, if Jesus and His disciples were to leave their houses before the morning, they would be breaking one of the most important ordinances! Can you believe such blatant heresy in His church today?

By blowing up their own righteousness, Fred Coulter and fellow compatriots from other CoG Communities have belittled the righteous like Hezekiah,Josiah and Ezra. Now they have even implied our Saviour is a sinner. 

God strictly forbade any Israelite to leave his house until sunrise. The Schocken Bible conveys the precise meaning of the Hebrew word boqer, showing the exact time at which the children of Israel were permitted to leave: “Now you—you are not to go out, any man from the entrance to his house, UNTIL DAYBREAK” (Ex. 12:22, SB). (The Christian Passover, pg 71) 

But Jesus and His disciples left around 9 to 9:30 PM without burning any food remains and bones. It’s a BLASPHEMY of blasphemies. Such filth is worse than the coronavirus beaming off from a pig! Like in the Garden of Eden, it kills the redemptive process. It kills the work the Son of God is doing. It has the smell of a rat: “thou shalt not surely die.”

And a reminder:

“Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceits” (Hosea 11:12). Only the wretched naked and blind couldn’t see this. The house of Judah operates with hypocrisy but the house of Ephraim operates with SATANIC lies and deceits!

Amazing!

See the source image

Just referring back to his Introduction and Chapter One, this is how Fred Coulter put a mirror in front of himself, and wrote about what he saw: 

As the return of Jesus Christ draws near, Satan the devil is employing all the powers and forces of evil to complete his deception of the entire world (Rev. 12:9).  One of his greatest deceptions is the perversion and paganization of the Christian Passover.  He has so subtly masterminded his false doctrines and practices that they are nearly universally accepted and believed.  People through the centuries have become so used to hearing, believing and practicing satanic lies that they cannot believe the truth.  To those who have been blinded by Satan’s deceptions, the true observance of the Christian Passover seems fanatical and cultish.  As Dressdon James once wrote, “When a well-packaged web of lies has been sold gradually to the masses over generations, the truth will seem utterly preposterous and its speaker [or writer] a raving lunatic.” (The Christian Passover, pg xiii)

“False doctrines and misinterpretations are continually being spread because ministers and teachers use the Word of God deceitfully. How diabolical it is to take the Word of God, which is the truth, and misapply it to create a lie! Such deceptive use of God’s Word has existed from the time of the apostles.”

“Anyone who twists and distorts the Scriptures is “using the law unlawfully,” as Paul said, and will end up believing false, satanic doctrines, which subvert the souls of men. Unfortunately, the landscape of religious history is filled with the bodies of people who have taught false doctrines, and the bodies of people who have embraced such teachings.” (The Christian Passover, pg 13-14)

And just in case we have forgotten Haman in the Persian Court, here is what Fred Coulter reminded us of himself when he wrote in Chapter 6:

WHAT FOLLY! What foolishness to accept a traditional belief that directly conflicts with the truth of God’s Word, and to use interpretations of Scripture that promote the false ideas of men! No wonder God says that He entraps the intelligent in the foolishness of their own human wisdom. (Pg 61)

~~~ CRITIQUES OF FRED COULTER’S THE CHRISTIAN PASSOVER ~~~

~~THE END~~

China’s Chip Break-i-n-g through!

•March 5, 2021 • Leave a Comment

5nm laser lithography breakthrough may lift Chinese chip-making

By Li Xuanmin Source: Global Times Published: 9 July 2020

A Chinese research institute has made a breakthrough in a new type of 5 nanometer (nm) laser lithography technology, which industry insiders believe could lay the foundation for research into a self-developed advanced lithography machine, a field in which China lags behind some developed Western countries. 

But they stressed that China remains “far away” from producing such a chip-making machine as there are still technological barriers. Lack of sufficient capital also presents an obstacle to translate the theoretical findings into production power.

The Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-Bionics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Sinano), along with the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, announced Thursday that they have made important progress on ultra-high precision laser lithography, according to a statement on Sinano’s website.

The new tech has broken the traditional constraint in laser direct writing to be able to process at nano-level. The ultra high precision processing is based on a new type of three-layer membrane structure. 

In addition to high precision, the technology demonstrates the potential of mass production. The laser direct writing tech could be used to produce up to 500,000 special nano electrodes an hour.

The research result is published in Nano Letters, a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society. The paper noted that the new nano processing technology could be widely applied in such sectors as semiconductors, photonic chips and micro electro mechanical systems. 

Xiang Ligang, a Beijing-based veteran industry analyst, told the Global Times on Thursday that the new technology will equip Chinese researchers with the theory to make forays into making homegrown lithography machines. “But it will take years for China to close the gap with the advanced Western suppliers, in particular ASML,” Xiang said. 

ASML delivered 7nm EUV lithography machines last year. The Netherlands-based firm also announced in June that it has made a significant development in its multi-beam inspection tool line for 5nm lithography machines.

In China, Shanghai Micro Electronics Equipment (SMEE) announced in June that it expects the first China-made 28nm immersion type lithography machine will be delivered in 2021-2022. SMEE has mass-produced lithographs with the best performance of 90nm processing nodes. 

Xiang noted that the Dutch firm monopolized key technologies in making lithography machines, which makes it difficult for Chinese companies to fast track their production. “It’s urgent to improve the machines’ production yield,” Xiang noted. 

Industry observers noted that another critical issue lies in the absence of sufficient capital input due to the slow return on a heavy investment.

“Chinese research institutes need to work with companies to translate theories into products. But in terms of profits, making a chip-production machine could cost billions of yuan and it will take years to recover the investment. Most Chinese companies don’t see it as a good deal,” Xiang explained.

China accounts for one-third of global semiconductor sales, according to media reports. The recent US-led relentless attack on China’s high-tech industries, which could cut off some Chinese tech companies like Huawei from advanced chip imports, has created a sense of urgency for the world’s second-largest economy to be self-sufficient in the semiconductor industry.

China’s first 100% homegrown memory chips in mass production in Shenzhen – 2020/7/9

China a step closer to microchip independence – DECEMBER 1, 2020

China moves closer to self-reliance in 7nm chip production – 27 Nov, 2020

China chases semiconductor self-sufficiency – 22 February 2021

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (k)

•March 4, 2021 • 1 Comment

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (k)

Passover on the 14th or 15th?

Fred R. Coulter
Christian Biblical Church of God
Post Office Box 1442
Hollister California 95024-1442

This is the second last Critique of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover. The main issue is whether the Passover lamb was killed on the early or late fourteenth of Nisan. Quotes are from Fred Coulter’s book, and some from his compatriots, all are in block form, in PINK. The Scriptures, in RED, must be our primary focus and guide.

Quiet time? Forget about it. - Opinion - Jerusalem Post

Chapters 18

In earlier critiques, we have found that when Solomon had finished the Temple in Jerusalem the Lord appeared to the young king by night and said unto him as affirmed in II Chronicles 6:6 , “I have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there,” as affirmed in II Chronicles 7:11-12 “I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place (Jerusalem) for Myself for a house of sacrifice.” 

God Himself had chosen Jerusalem and these Scriptures run in contradiction to Fred’s heresy that “[b]oth Hezekiah’s and Josiah’s temple-centered Passover observances were the result of a personal commitment by these kings to restore apostate Israel and Judah to the true worship of God” (The Christian Passover, pg 220).

And three times in a year Solomon offered burnt offerings and peace offerings upon the altar which he built unto the Lord, and he burned incense upon the altar that was before the Lord. So he finished the house. (I King 9:25) — Adam Clarke: These three times were: (1) The passover. (2) The feast of pentecost. (3) The feast of tabernacles.

Second, it was God and not Ezra who instituted the laws regarding the slaughtering of the Passover lamb not needed be done solely within the Temple courtyard – but “inside or outside the camp.” This runs contrary to another of Fred’s heresies that “[a]fter the Jews returned from the Babylonian captivity, Ezra promulgated the “new Passover law,” which designated Jerusalem and the surrounding festival area as the only place where the Passover could be observed” (pg 220). 

The principle requirements being that the blood had to be carried to the Temple courtyard for a priest to sprinkle upon the altar as commanded in Leviticus 17 – it wasn’t a “new Passover law,” and it wasn’t instituted “according to the commandment of the king” but a commandment of God. Any person offering a sacrifice inside or outside the camp but its blood not carried to the Temple be offered at the altar before the Lord risked being “cut off from among his people” (Leviticus 17:3-4). It was God who instituted this commandment way back during the time of Moses.

Before we go into the Passover issue in the New Testament  it is important to start with John the Baptist, the forerunner to the arrival of the Messiah. Note his prophecy:

Luke 3:3 And he (John the son of Zacharias) came into all the country about the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins, 4 as it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, saying, “The voice of one crying in the wilderness: ‘Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make His paths straight. 5 Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; 6 and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.’”

7 Then said he to the multitude who came forth to be baptized by him, “O generation of vipers! Who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and begin not to say among yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father.’ For I say unto you, that God is able from these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. 9 And now also the ax is laid unto the root of the trees. Every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire (pyr g4442).” 

And further down, John prophesied about the Messiah:

Luke 3:16 John answered, saying unto them all, “I indeed baptize you with water; but One mightier than I cometh, the straps of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose. He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire (pyr g4442). 17 His winnowing fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge His floor and will gather the wheat into His garner; but the chaff He will burn with fire (pyr g4442) unquenchable.”

The Greek word pŷr is “fire” literally or figuratively, especially lightning. A pyre in English is also known as a funeral pyre, which is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution. As a form of cremation, a body is placed upon or under the pyre, which is then set on fire. 

John was a voice crying in the wilderness, and he said to make the crooked paths straight, he needed to hewn some trees and cast them into the fire (verse 9). Then John said that the Messiah that comes after him, will have a winnowing fan in His hand, and will thoroughly purge His floor by gathering the chaff together and burn them with fire (verse17). This story is so important that it is similarly recorded in Matthew 3:1-12.

Enfield Fire: Huge Blaze Near M25 Prompts Smoke Warning To ...

Notice the consistency of “fire” is important. After the flood, God promised the world that whenever we see the rainbow it is a reminder of His promise not to similarly destroy the world by flood again. But about destroying by fire here are some of Jesus own warnings:

Matthew 7:19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire.

Matthew 13:40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so shall it be at the end of this world.

Matthew 13:50 and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.”

Matthew 25:41 “Then shall He say also unto them on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.

Mark 9:44 where ‘their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.’

Luke 12:49 “I am come to send fire on the earth, and what will I, if it be already kindled?

John 15:6 If a man abides not in Me, he is cast forth as a branch and is withered; and men gather them and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

Acts 2:19 And I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath — blood and fire and vapor of smoke.

And destruction came in AD 70, roughly 40 years after Christ’s warning! The Romans, led by the future Emperor Titus, came and destroyed Jerusalem, killing more than 1.1 million, with another 97,000 enslaved. “O Brood of vipers!” warned John the Baptist, “Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?” From all the chaos that took place, only a few Jews escaped.

Once the Roman started the fire, it spread quickly and was soon out of control. The Temple was captured and destroyed on 9/10 Tisha B’Av, around the end of August, and the flames spread into the residential sections of the city. 

Josephus described some of the scenes:

The destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem.

As the legions charged in, neither persuasion nor threat could check their impetuosity: passion alone was in command. Crowded together around the entrances many were trampled by their friends, many fell among the still hot and smoking ruins of the colonnades and died as miserably as the defeated. As they neared the Sanctuary they pretended not even to hear Caesar’s commands and urged the men in front to throw in more firebrands. The partisans were no longer in a position to help; everywhere was slaughter and flight. Most of the victims were peaceful citizens, weak and unarmed, butchered wherever they were caught. Round the Altar the heaps of corpses grew higher and higher, while down the Sanctuary steps poured a river of blood and the bodies of those killed at the top slithered to the bottom.

During the four years of war, the Romans had taken 97,000 prisoners. Thousands of them were forced to become gladiators and were killed in the arena, fighting wild animals or fellow gladiators. Some, who were known as criminals, were burned alive. Others were employed at Seleucia, where they had to dig a tunnel. But most of these prisoners were brought to Rome, where they were forced to build the Forum of Peace (a park in the heart of Rome) and the Colosseum. The Menorah and the Table were exhibited in the temple of Peace. (Full Details in Wars Bk 6)

But John wasn’t alone, earlier King David also saw this, more likely one for the end-time, even “he shall fill the places with the dead bodies . . . over many countries”: “The Lord at thy right hand (i.e. the Son, who came later as the Messiah) shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries” (Psalm 110:5-6). Were these “baptised in fire” as warned by John the Baptist?

The foundation of Fred Coulter’s Passover on the early fourteenth of Nisan has been proven to be built on quicksand. Once this foundation is wacky, it shifts and moves and its consequence can be desperating. “The rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell—and great was its fall,” (Matthew 7:24-27). That’s right! The Worldwide Church of God was growing at some 30 percent each year for decades, but it was built on sand. Once its founder died, the organisation imploded, and it fell like a bang, and great was its noise, scattering into many splinters as a result. Because Fred Coulter’s belief is similarly built on a shaky foundation it will with certainty come with a desperating end. So we’ll proceed with him to the New Testament era.

But notice the following four verses during the New Testament time before we proceed. They show that the Feast of the Passover were well understood by the writers as the Feast of Unleavened Bread as a composite Festival, known by either name.

Matthew 26:17 Now on the first [day of the Feast] of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto Him, “Where wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee to eat the Passover?”

Mark 14:12 And on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they killed the Passover lamb, His disciples said unto Him, “Where wilt Thou have us go and prepare, that Thou mayest eat the Passover?”

Luke 22:1 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.

Luke 22:7 Then came the Day of Unleavened Bread when the Passover lamb must be killed.

Now another quote from The Christian Passover:

When we examine the Gospel accounts of Jesus’ last Passover, it is evident that Jesus and His disciples kept a domestic Passover at the beginning of the 14th, according to the commands of God in Exodus 12. On the other hand, the New Testament discloses that the Sadducees, scribes and Pharisees observed a 14/15 temple Passover, eating their Passover on the night of the 15th. This dichotomy makes it clear that the 14/15 controversy existed in New Testament times. We will have a better basis for understanding the observance of the Passover in the New Testament if we survey the terminology that is used in the Gospel accounts. (Pg 220)

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There are many errors in the above paragraph. The Sadducees didn’t subscribe to a 14/15 Passover, the Pharisees did. The Sadducees (and also the Samaritans), kept an early fourteenth Passover, because they also define erev as twilight, and ben ha arbayim (between the two evenings) as between sunset and dark. Fred Coulter must be suffering from memory loss, for he wrote in Chapter 10: “The Sadducees, including some high priests and their families, continued to practice the domestic killing of the Passover lambs at the beginning of the 14th,” (Pg 119).  Such oversight is glaring. And where are all his team? — Carl and Jean Franklin, Philip Neal, Albert and Mela Cataga John, Hiedi and Sasha Vogele — all sleeping?

The Pharisees, and later the Rabbinics considered the time when the sun began to descend from its zenith to be called the First Evening and the Second Evening when the sun disappears from sight over the horizon. The time between the eve of the First Evening and eve of the Second Evening is “between the two evenings.” Only the Pharisees retained keeping the Passover during this time frame which is also known as a late fourteenth Passover.

Both Mark and Luke make a clear distinction between the Passover day and the Feast of Unleavened Bread in their accounts of the events leading to Jesus’ last Passover. On the other hand, in his narration of the early life of Jesus Christ, Luke includes the Feast of Unleavened Bread with the Passover day as a single feast called “the feast of Passover.” In this passage, Luke does not distinguish the Passover day from the Feast of Unleavened Bread, but records that Jesus and “… His parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the Passover….[And] they departed after completing the days…” (Luke 2:41, 43). (Pg 221)

That’s right, the feast of the Passover involves several days. The gospel writers all well understood that the feast of the Passover and the days of Unleavened Bread were a composite feast. By separating the Passover from the days of Unleavened Bread can also mean we are separating our Messiah’s sacrifice from the redemption of His subjects. Can we redeem ourselves from sin when we separate ourselves from the One who makes our redemption possible? Certainly not, but to argue otherwise is going against the spirit of the Scriptures, and the writings of Matthew, Mark and Luke. Unless, of course, Fred Coulter, Frank Nelte and John Ritenbaugh are holier and more righteous than Ezra, Matthew, Mark and Luke.

The Gospel accounts make it clear that Jesus did not follow the traditions of men. Jesus strongly denounced the traditions of the Jews—ALL OF THEM! (Pg 222)

All of them? Nar. Early in His life, Jesus went with his parents to keep the Passover, Luke 2:41.

Now His parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. If these Galileans were to keep a domestic Passover, as Fred Coulter alleges, they would stay back to keep a “domestic Passover” in Galilee. Bad traditions are already well documented, so I won’t reiterate them, but good traditions are seldom mentioned. Here there are, as Paul says:

Image result for last supper pics

“I profited in the Jews’ religion beyond many of my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers” Galatians 1:14.

“Therefore, brethren, stand fast and hold to the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word or our epistle” II Thessalonians 2:15.

“Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother who walketh disorderly and not according to the tradition which you received from us” II Thessalonians 3:6.

And how come Jesus wore the tassels or ham, described as “edges”; a distinctively Jewish tallit (Matthew 9:20-22, 14:36; Mark 6:56)? Then Jesus went to Jerusalem for the Festival of Dedication (John 10:22), another Jewish tradition. To say that Jesus rejects “ALL” the traditions of the Jews is a presumption that could only come from one with a devious mindset, and it will come with a serious consequence. “And the man who will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest who standeth to minister there before the Lord thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die” Deuteronomy 17:12.

The Gospel of John shows how far the Jews had strayed from the worship that God desired. John records that the Jews were actually defiling the temple of God with their corrupt practices: “Now the Passover of the Jews was near, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem . . .  (Pg 225)

Wasn’t a Jerusalem centred Passover an ordinance from God? Jerusalem was chosen by God as affirmed in II Chronicles 6:6, “I have chosen Jerusalem.” And the three annual feasts (Deuteronomy 16:5-6) were established in Jerusalem during Solomon’s reign, (I King 9:25). Jesus, setting the best example, went to Jerusalem to keep the Passover of the Jews. He didn’t stay back in Galilee, in their own homes, to keep a “domestic Passover” as occurred in the original Exodus. Neither did He keep a Passover of the Samaritans at Mount Gerizim.

Yet Fred harps and moans over this “domestic Passover” all over his book. To the knowledgeable this is revolting. The original Passover had to be observed in a strict prescribed manner because of what God was going to achieve through Exodus. However, in later years it was a commemoration of the event, not the event itself. For in Deuteronomy 16:16 it commands “Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles.” God had provided a provision where He will choose a place in the future where the Israelites are to worship him.  And that place chosen by God is Jerusalem as affirmed in II Chronicles 6:6, “I have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there.”

And God’s prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Joel, Zechariah, they all say the same thing. In Isaiah 2:3 And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem; Isaiah 24:23 Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously: Isaiah 28:14, Jeremiah 3:17, Joel 2:32, Joel 3:16, Amos 1:2, Micah 4:2, Zechariah 1:16,17, 2:12, 3:2, 8:3, 8:22, 12:10), and other follows identifying Jerusalem as God’s chosen city, but why is Fred Coulter still harping and whining about a “domestic Passover”?

Image result for jesus 12 to jerusalem for the passover

And Jesus, at the age of twelve, readily went to Jerusalem to keep the Passover! “Thou mayest not sacrifice the Passover within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee” (Deuteronomy 16:5) Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover. And when Jesus was twelve years old, they similarly went up to Jerusalem “after the custom of the feast,” rather than staying back in Galilee. Was Jesus misled? “Custom of the Feast,” that means to say, Jesus went to Jerusalem every year for Passover!  But Fred still groans about a “domestic Passover” all over. In Old Testament times, the old Jeroboam stopped his subjects from going to Temple-based Jerusalem during the Feast of Tabernacles; but here in modern times, a new Jeroboam also teaches against keeping Passover in a Temple-based Jerusalem. Amazing parallels!

In later chapters, John uses similar terminology when referring to the Jews’ observance of the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread: “Now the Passover, a feast of the Jews, was near” (John 6:4). Again, John states, “Now the Passover of the Jews was near, and many went up from out of the country to Jerusalem before the Passover, so that they might purify themselves” (John 11:55). John’s repeated use of this terminology makes it clear that the Jews were not keeping these feast days as God intended them to be kept. (Pg 225-226)

Another work of high Satanic quality, so according to Fred, even Jesus and His disciples “were not keeping these feast days as God intended them to be kept!” 

Among the Gospel writers, John lived the longest. He was there when there arose a revolting movement by the Gentiles to get rid of anything that had to do with being adhering to Mosaic Laws, anything considered as “Jewish.” With that in mind, John emphasized the Jewishness of those feasts by reiterating “Passover of the Jews” or “feast of the Jews.” He also mentioned a Jewish feast of tabernacles too in John 7:2 “Now the Jews’ Feast of Tabernacles was at hand” which is also Jewish. Mosaic laws were considered among the Gentiles then and now as Jewish.

John emphasised their Jewishness simply because there was a real Samaritan counterfeit nearby: they practiced another version of the Passover, which were observed on a Samaritan calendar on the early fourteenth of Nisan, at twilight, on Mount Gerizim. Jewish and Samaritan rivalries were so intense and hence imbuled their perception that Samaritans were having a devil (John 8:48). The animosity was well understood as Samaritans would often, among numerous devices, light bon-fires in order to deceive the Jews as to the tidings of the announcement of a new moon in Jerusalem, confusing and fooling them.

Being Galileans, John and the other disciples have to travel innumerable times passing Samaritan territories, including Jacob’s well in Shechem, which lies between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim in the hill-country of Ephraim, to come to Jerusalem to keep the three annual feasts. So bad and threatening to these Jewish faiths and practises since Ezra’s time that eventually the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans, (John 4:9). 

So when John was writing, he emphasized “of the Jews” as distinct from that of the Samaritan’s. And to put a sting to their Jewishness, John even recorded Jesus in Jerusalem for the Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah), which all the other Gospel writers ignored, for it says in John 10:22 “And it was at Jerusalem the Feast of Dedication,” where Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon’s Porch.

However, John writes differently when he refers to Jesus’ last Passover, which was observed on the night of the 14th, the time that God commanded. Notice that John does not use the phrase “of the Jews” to describe this Passover: “Now six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany…” (John 12:1). Again, John records, “Now before the feast of the Passover, knowing that His time had come to depart from this world to the Father…” (John 13:1). As the subsequent verses in John 13 show, John is referring to Jesus’ last Passover, which He ate with His disciples on the 14th day of the first month, as commanded by God. The different terminology that John uses makes a clear distinction between Jesus’ observance of the Passover and the Jews’ observance of their feast. (Pg 226)

“And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?” (Mark 14:12, KJV.)

Although the translators did not insert the words “feast of” before “unleavened bread,” this translation of Mark 14:12 gives the impression that the lambs were killed on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Such a statement would be contrary to all records of Scripture and history.  (Pg 227)

Mark rightly didn’t incorporate the “feast of” before unleavened bread and credit should be attributable to him, not attacking him. This is a typical case of Fred having a preconceived notion of what the Scriptures say, and when it doesn’t fit, he attacks his own misconception: “If these verses are actually stating that the lambs were killed on the 15th, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, then we are confronted with gigantic problems.” And then he continues his attack with various “imaginary scenarios” (three in fact, on page 228) as he describes them.

Let’s recall what Fred Coulter wrote about sticking to the Scriptures on Chapter 1:

Fourteen Rules for Bible Study:

12) Do not allow your own personal assumptions or preconceived notions to influence your understanding and conclusions.

13) Do not form conclusions based on partial facts or insufficient information, or the opinions and speculations of others.

14) Opinions, regardless of how strongly you feel about them, don’t necessarily count. Scripture must be your standard and guide. (Pg 14-15)

Amazing! Fred Coulter has been making presumptions all the time. He doesn’t read that it was God who established Jerusalem where He put His name there for worship but keeps on harping that it was the commandment of the kings. And right here at the second paragraph of this chapter:

“When we examine the Gospel accounts of Jesus’ last Passover, it is evident that Jesus and His disciples kept a domestic Passover at the beginning of the 14th, according to the commands of God in Exodus 12,” (Pg 220)

Image result for jerusalem for the passover

And the title for the next chapter, he already has his heading as, 

Chapter Nineteen – Jesus’ Last Passover—When and How Was It Observed?” (Pg 232)

He already had a preconceived notion that it was “Jesus’ Last Passoverbefore he began to prove it.  Are these statements and headings not presumptuous? Are Fred’s devotees still adoring him? Are they not correctly described as “blind” “wretched” and “naked”?

The wording in Mark’s account causes confusion because it appears to contradict these facts, as does the wording in Luke’s account: “Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed” (Luke 22:7, KJV).

If these verses are actually stating that the lambs were killed on the 15th, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, then we are confronted with gigantic problems: (Pg 227)

No, there are nowhere considered as “gigantic problems” not even a slight problem. Exodus 12 confirms the opposite. Verse 18 says “In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening (erev), ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one and twentieth day of the month at evening (erev).” 

Eating of unleavened bread starts BEFORE the beginning of the fifteenth. Unleavened bread is to be eaten “on the fourteenth day of the month at evening (erev),” (Exodus 12:18). As another testimony from Deuteronomy 16:1-8 shows, the full ordinances for Passover and the time for taking unleavened bread overlapped. The Targum translates and explains the Sacred Hebrew Text into the vernacular, in very simple language and is extremely clear: “And you shall eat the flesh on that night, the fifteenth of Nisan.”

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A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (j)

•March 4, 2021 • 1 Comment

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (j)

Passover on the 14th or 15th?

Fred R. Coulter
Christian Biblical Church of God
Post Office Box 1442
Hollister California 95024-1442

This is a Critique of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover. The main issue is whether the Passover lamb was killed on the early or late fourteenth of Nisan. Quoted are Fred Coulter’s book, from an internet online PDF version. Most of his quotes are in block form, in PINK and indented. The Scriptures, in RED, must be our primary focus and guide.

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Chapters 16 – 17

Chapter 16 from Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover starts with the issue of how Deuteronomy 16 was different from other text, that Passover and Unleavened Bread should be distinct and separate, not a composite festival. And that Deuteronomy 16 was edited by Ezra to make it as if it were a composite festival, confusing students and scholars by calling the festival by using either name.

The followings are from Chapter 14 of The Christian Passover, so it’s a bit of flashback:

The advocates of a 15th Passover claim that the commands of God in Deuteronomy 16 support the temple sacrifice of the Passover lambs. On the surface, it appears that these commands required the sacrificing of the Passover at the temple, and that the Passover and the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread were combined into one feast. (The Christian Passover, pg 159)

Why do the commands in Deuteronomy 16 appear to be in conflict with all other commands of God for keeping the Passover? (Pg 159)

Why does Deuteronomy 16:1 use the term “Passover” in the context of commemorating the Exodus? What is the reason for this apparent discrepancy between Deuteronomy 16:1 and other Scriptural references to leaving Egypt in the month Abib? (Pg 164)

Remember, the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers were mainly the words of God to His subjects — to Adam, Abraham, Jacob, on to Moses — but in Deuteronomy it was Moses speaking to the Israelites. Moses uses words and terms different from God’s so that the people could understand in a language the Israelites could understand. The introduction to Deuteronomy says:

“These are the words which Moses spoke unto all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the wilderness . . . ” (Deuteronomy 1:1)

Yes, Moses combined Passover and Unleavened Bread into one festival as the two festivals were used interchangeably in this book of Deuteronomy. Moses wasn’t writing anything in conflict with the Words of God — surely he won’t dare to — he was making sure in clearer language so that the Israelites didn’t miss this amalgamated character of the feast. This character was already inherent in the original Exodus but Moses combined these two feasts explicitly here to ensure that those with a thicker head can also catch up.

One heading and its explanation in chapter 16 of The Christian Passover:

The Exiles Could Not Keep the Passover

Moreover, during the entire seventy-year captivity, the Passover could not be kept. The word of God makes it absolutely clear that when the people were not in the land of Israel, they could not keep the Passover on the 14th day of the first month. Notice the instructions that God gave to Moses when the children of Israel were in the wilderness: “And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month between the two evenings [ben ha arbayim] in the wilderness of Sinai. According to all that the LORD commanded Moses, the children of Israel did. (Pg 202)

If the Passover was home-centered – a “domestic passover” – the Jews shouldn’t have any inhibition about keeping the Passover in Babylon, as were in Egypt and in the Sinai wilderness, but Fred Coulter says, “The word of God makes it absolutely clear that when the people were not in the land of Israel, they could not keep the Passover.”

Why didn’t he provide any Scriptures to back up his claim? Actually the Scriptures say the opposite. Goshen wasn’t in Israel, neither the Sinai Desert in Israel while wandering in the wilderness for the next forty years, yet they kept the Passover. Are his devotees still sleeping? Why such wretched writing and none of his devotees are thinking?

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In fact the Scripture in Leviticus 17 commands that in any sacrifice to the Lord  the blood must be brought to the tabernacle or later, the temple. In verse 8, it says, “And thou shalt say unto them: ‘Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among you, who offereth a burnt offering or sacrifice (h2077 zebach), 9 and bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation to offer it unto the Lord, even that man shall be cut off from among his people. 

A Passover is a sacrifice. Its blood must be brought to the tabernacle before the Lord. And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar, at the door of the tabernacle. IT WAS THIS INABILITY TO BRING THE BLOOD TO THE ALTAR THAT DURING THE SEVENTY YEARS OF CAPTIVITY THE EXILES COULD NOT KEEP THE PASSOVER!

Below are further quotes from Fred Coulter:

That the Jews in exile could not observe the Passover is acknowledged by the Karaite Jews and recorded by Samuel Al-Magribi in 1484: “Today, however, by reason of our many sins, we are scattered over the four corners of the earth, we are dispersed in the lands of the Gentiles, we are soiled with their ritual uncleanness and unable to reach the House of the Lord, and our status is equivalent to that of persons ritually unclean or traveling far away. That is why this ordinance of the Passover sacrifice no longer applies to us, and the reason for this is our fathers’ exceeding disobedience to God and our own following in their sinful footsteps” (Nemoy, Karaite Anthology, p. 206) (Pg 203)

That the Jews were “unable to reach the House of the Lord” was because the Temple wasn’t in Babylon where the captives lived. This quote above confirms that the Karaites understand that Passover couldn’t be kept other than at the Temple.

But who are the Karaites? 

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Anan ben David (715 – 795 or 811) is widely considered to be the founder of the Karaite movement, hence his followers were initially called Ananites; but now they are largely known as the Karaites. These Karaites challenge the Rabbanite establishment as they do not believe the rabbinical oral law is divinely inspired. Thus when interpreting the Torah, Karaites strive to adhere to the plain or literal meaning of the text; much like the Sadducees. Hence Abraham Geiger, a 19th-century German scholar who founded Reform Judaism, posited a connection between the Karaites and the Sadducees, simply because many of their beliefs are similar. 

When the Jews were in exile during the Babylonian captivity, they could not keep the Passover. This prohibition led to the replacement of the Passover with the Seder meal on the 15th day of the first month, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. To make their false substitute appear Scriptural, the Jews changed the name of the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread to “Passover.” By changing the name of this feast, the Seder meal on the night of the 15th became the “Passover” for those who were living in exile. (Pg 203)

Typical of Fred’s writing, he doesn’t provide any evidence why this “prohibition led to the replacement of the Passover with the Seder meal” during the Babylonian captivity. He could just whip up something from nothing. Magic. A touch of Simon Magus again. On closer scrutiny, he contradicts himself later in Chapter Nineteen, saying:

“The Seder meal was adopted by the Pharisaic Jews after the destruction of the temple in AD 70,” (Pg 242).

Second, the terms “Passover” and the “Days of Unleavened Bread” had been established as a composite Festival right during the Exodus as was proven in the last few critiques.

“And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king. And the children of Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and the rest of the children of the captivity kept the dedication of this house of God with joy….And the children of the captivity kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month. The priests and the Levites were purified together, all of them pure. And they killed the Passover lamb for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren the priests, and for themselves. And the children of Israel ate the Passover lamb, all who had come again out of exile, and all such as had separated themselves to them from the uncleanness of the nations of the land in order to seek the LORD God of Israel. And they kept the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days with joy, for the LORD had made them joyful…” (Ezra 6:15-16, 19-22). (Pg 204)

During the original Exodus, the Passover was killed in the evening by “the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel” but once the Levitical priesthood was established, most of the ordinances were carried out by the Levites and priests. And given that Ezra was a righteous scribe, what he did was righteous in the sight of God: “For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments” Ezra 7:10:

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And they set the priests in their divisions, and the Levites in their courses for the service of God, which is at Jerusalem, as it is written in the Book of Moses.19 And the children of the captivity kept the Passover upon the fourteenth day of the first month. 20 For the priests and the Levites were purified together; all of them were pure, and killed the Passover lamb for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren the priests, and for themselves, (Ezra 6:18-20).

The Talmud has listed 613 mitzvot from the Torah but there is no command that the Passover should ONLY be killed by members of the congregation of Israel or by the Levites and priests. That isn’t an issue. The important criteria is that the Levites and priests must be clean and the Passover lamb must be killed on the fourteenth of the first month at even (ben ha arbayim, Exodus 12:6). 

The priests and Levites did as they “were purified together; all of them were pure,” on behalf of the returning Exiles who had returned to Jerusalem. If Ezra wasn’t a righteous scribe, he wouldn’t “seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments.” Fred Coulter is a false accuser, along with Frank Nelte and John Ritenbaugh. Instead of upholding the Scriptures and Ezra as a man of God, these accusers are demeaning Ezra and the Scriptures.

The Scriptures quoted above (Ezra 6:19-20) reaffirm the followings about keeping the Passover:

(1) the divisions and duties of both priests and Levites were reestablished at the Temple, “as it is written in the Book of Moses” (Ezra 6:18). The Sanctuary in JERUSALEM was reinstituted. There is no such a thing about a “domestic” passover.

(2) the priests and Levites “killed the Passover lamb for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren the priests, and for themselves.” — contrary to what Fred hopes for, the common people didn’t do the killing, the priests and Levites did in this instance.

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When God gave unto Moses the law in Mount Sinai, He also gave the interpretation of the law, commanding Moses to put the former into writing, but to deliver the later only by word of mouth, to be preserved only in memories and be transmitted down from generation to generation orally; and from hence the former is called the Written Law and the latter the Oral Law. Sometimes later the Prophets came along and added more light on certain Laws. Ezekiel 45:21 and Ezra 6 are examples of further enlightenments.

As the account in the book of Ezra shows, the Levites themselves killed the Passover lambs at this observance.  This was not a purely domestic observance, as was the Passover that the children of Israel observed in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and in their early years in the Promised Land. This Passover—the first recorded observance by the returned exiles—was centered at the newly dedicated temple and was kept according to the new Passover law that Ezra had instituted.  Ezra’s new law was enacted primarily because of the apostate Jewish temples in Samaria and Elephantine, where unauthorized sacrifices were being made.  The new Passover law enforced the Scriptural teaching that Jerusalem was the only city where God had placed His name and that the altar at the temple in Jerusalem was the only authorized place to offer sacrifices to God.  Since the Jews of Ezra’s day were accustomed to observing a temple-centered Passover, those who lived near the apostate temples in Samaria and Elephantine would naturally have been tempted to observe the Passover at these sites.  The majority of the Jews still lived in exile, and less than 60,000 lived in Judea.  By restricting all Passover observance to the area of Jerusalem, Ezra hoped to prevent the exiles from falling prey to the counterfeit religions that were competing with the true worship of God at the temple in Jerusalem. (Pg 204-205)

Regardless of whether other temples had been established in Samaria or Elephantine, God’s law was instituted that the Passover sacrifice had to be done at the Tabernacle or in Jerusalem. Once King Solomon had finished building the Temple in Jerusalem, the Lord appeared to Solomon by night and said unto him: “I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place for Myself for a house of sacrifice” (II Chronicles 7:11-12). What happened in Mount Gerizim or Elephantine had no consequence with what God had intended for those who would come to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices. Fred Coulter is continuing with his distortion.

And “this place” that God had intended is in Jerusalem:

“I (God) have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there” (II Chronicles 6:6).

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And continue in other Scriptures:

II Chronicles 7:1 Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the Lord filled the house. 2 And the priests could not enter into the house of the Lord, because the glory of the Lord had filled the Lord’S house.

3 And when all the children of Israel saw how the fire came down and the glory of the Lord upon the house, they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and worshiped and praised the Lord, saying, “For He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever.”

4 Then the king and all the people offered sacrifices before the Lord.

5 And King Solomon offered a sacrifice of twenty and two thousand oxen, and a hundred and twenty thousand sheep; so the king and all the people dedicated the house of God.

I King 9:3 And the Lord said unto him, “I have heard thy prayer and thy supplication that thou hast made before Me. I have hallowed this house which thou hast built, to put My name there forever; and Mine eyes and Mine heart shall be there perpetually.

II Chronicles 7:12 And the Lord appeared to Solomon by night and said unto him: “I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place [Jerusalem] for Myself for a house of sacrifice.

I King 9:25 And three times in a year Solomon offered burnt offerings and peace offerings upon the altar which he built unto the Lord, and he burned incense upon the altar that was before the Lord. So he finished the house. — That house chosen by God is in Jerusalem: “I have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there,” II Chronicles 6:6, 

God had His plan all worked out early. And those Scriptures quotes above are testimonies to the truth that Jerusalem is the ONLY place to offer sacrifices. Again we should refer to what Fred Coulter wrote back in Chapter One: “Anyone who twists and distorts the Scriptures is “using the law unlawfully,” and will end up believing false, satanic doctrines,” (pg 13). Only the blind couldn’t see this. And not only blind, but they are also described as wretched and naked.

~~17~~

It takes blood to cover sin. Blood represents life. 

“For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul” (Leviticus 17:11). 

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Only the blood of Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God, can pay for the sins of all mankind. Then why wasn’t His blood acknowledged to be sprinkled at the alter? Why were all the other sacrificial blood offered at the alter, but not that of the Lamb of God. The blood of all the other sacrifices could never pay for the sins of anyone, yet they were offered and sprinkled at the alter. But not that of the Lamb of God?

Fred Coulter’s quotation from the Reform Movement “authority” continues:

Hellenism was introduced by the Greeks in the days of Alexander the Great. The Greeks actively promoted their Hellenistic beliefs in the lands that they dominated. The spread of Hellenism among the Jews was curbed for a time by the influence of Simon the Just, who was high priest in the last years of the Great Assembly. As the last of the Sopherim—the great teachers of the law—Simon was held in high esteem by all Jews. With his death, the rule of 206 the Great Assembly came to a close, and Hellenism became the dominant influence in the lives of the people. Its impact on the Jewish community led to major changes in the teachings of the religious leaders. (Pg 205)

Dr. Lauterbach, a Jewish historian, describes the changes that occurred during this period: “Thus we see that after the death of Simon the Just, the conditions of the community and as a result thereof the activities of the teachers differed greatly from those that obtained in the times of the Soferim [the teachers of the Great Assembly]” (Rabbinic Essays, p. 200). (Pg 206)

Jacob Zallel Lauterbach (1873–1942) was an American Judaica scholar and author who served on the faculty of Hebrew Union College and composed responsa (written decisions and rulings) for the Reform Movement in America. His work, Rabbinic Essays, drew heavily from Abraham Geiger (1810 – 23 October 1874), known as the Father of the Reform Movement. And his other Works include contributing many articles to The Jewish Encyclopedia, another spinoff from the Reform Movement. 

The Movement sought a more coherent ideological framework to justify innovations in the liturgy and religious practice. Originated in Germany, one characteristic of their progressive revelation that started the ball rolling was the institution of a “Second Sabbath” on Sunday, modeled on the Second Passover, as jobs were hard to come by and so they started crafting a way out.

The Reform Movement claims their Movement is in “a process of constant evolution” and this movement “rejects any fixed, permanent set of beliefs, laws or practices.” They stated that the old mechanisms of religious interpretation (meaning the Mishnah and the Talmud) were obsolete.

Today, Reform Judaism has two major objectives:

(1) Reform Jews are committed to the absolute equality of women in all areas of Jewish life. “We were the first movement to ordain women rabbis, invest women cantors, and elect women presidents of our synagogues.”

(2) Reform Jews are also committed to the full participation of gays and lesbians in synagogue life as well as society at large.

The book of Ezra records the first Passover to be observed after the dedication of the second temple. Although the Passover was centered at the temple, the lambs were slain at the beginning of the 14th and were eaten on the night of the 14th (Ezra 6:19-21). 

It is important to understand that Ezra’s decree did not change the time for killing the Passover lambs. His Passover law did not in any way alter or contradict the Passover ordinances of God, as recorded in Scripture. The measures that Ezra enforced were aimed at protecting the true worship of God and upholding His laws—not changing or replacing them. His restriction of the Passover to the area of Jerusalem promoted a temple centered observance, but it did not replace or prohibit the domestic killing of the Passover within that area. (Pg 206)

A cluster of truths and lies. Although it’s correct to say the returned exiles kept the Passover on the fourteenth and centered at the Temple, nothing in Ezra 6:19-21 was said the time the lamb was slain was “at the beginning of the fourteenth and were eaten on the night of the 14th.” If Fred wants to say that the lambs were slain at the beginning of the fourteenth, that’s okay, at least we know Fred says it, but to quote Ezra as saying it, it’s lying about his writing. That’s a sign of desperation. 

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And this lie continues, sugarcoating about Ezra “upholding His laws” and yet “it did not replace or prohibit the domestic killing of the Passover within that area.” These continuous lyings are a presumptuous way of ascertaining “truth” — a deceitful way.

Although the temple sacrifice in the afternoon of the 14th became a widespread tradition, it did not wholly replace the domestic sacrifice of the lambs at the beginning of the 14th.

It is important to understand that Ezra’s decree did not change the time for killing the Passover lambs. His Passover law did not in any way alter or contradict the Passover ordinances of God, as recorded in Scripture. The measures that Ezra enforced were aimed at protecting the true worship of God and upholding His laws—not changing or replacing them. His restriction of the Passover to the area of Jerusalem promoted a temple centered observance, but it did not replace or prohibit the domestic killing of the Passover within that area. (Pg 206)

There is so much double-talk above. And just in case: “double-talk” is “a language that appears to be earnest and meaningful but in fact is a mixture of sense and nonsense.” If the law and ordinances for a “domestic Passover” were still in force, then changing it to a temple-centered observance would be a violation, a sin, nor matter what the intention was. Second, if the law and ordinances were for the lamb to be slain at the beginning of the fourteenth, then moving it to the late fourteenth would also be another sin. The presentation is “a mixture of sense and nonsense.” 

Ezra was accredited with the beginning of the synagogues, where after the Babylonian captivity, the men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers and worship. For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments. We must be reminded that Ezra was a righteous scribe and a righteous high priest, one who “tenaciously studied, practiced, and taught the Eternal’s law to Israel” that he was regarded as the second Moses.

After the return of the Exile, the Jews were back in Jerusalem and the law was explained to the returning Exiles in the Aramaic language where they could understand that were originally written in Hebrew. Since most of the people, after 70 years of Exile, had lost the knowledge of the ancient Hebrew to such a degree that they need the Word of God, not only translated, but explained in the vernacular. 

And Ezra blessed the Lord, the great God. . . . 7  . . . .and the Levites, caused the people to understand the law; and the people stood in their place. 8 So they read in the book, in the law of God, distinctly, and gave the sense and caused them to understand the reading. (Nehemiah 8:6-8)

In order to give “the sense and caused them to understand the reading,” they need to understand the Scriptures in Aramaic, hence this gave rise to the origin of the Targum version of our modern Bible.

And the Targum says of the original Passover in Exodus 12:6-8 “And it (the lamb) shall be bound and reserved for you until the fourteenth day of this month, that you may not know the fear of the Mizraee (Egyptians) when they see it; and ye shall kill him according to the rite of all to congregation of the assembly of Israel, between the suns. And you shall take of the blood and set it upon the two posts and upon the upper board outside of the houses in which you eat and sleep. And you shall eat the flesh on that night, the fifteenth of Nisan.”

It is clear and simple. The Targum says the instruction was to eat the flesh of the lamb on the fifteenth of Nisan.

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Josephus states that 256,500 lambs were killed for the Passover that year. To kill 256,500 Passover lambs at the temple, 85,500 lambs would have to be slain in each of the three courses.  But the size of the sacrificial area limited the number of lambs in each course to less than 6,500.  The number of lambs that Josephus records is thirteen times the maximum number that could have been killed in the three courses.

WE CAN CONCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: Far more lambs were sacrificed for the Passover than could possibly have been slain at the temple during the allotted courses. The only logical explanation is that most of the lambs were not slain at the temple! (Pg 219)

The Scriptures have provided such a scenario of people making sacrifices in Jerusalem, “inside or outside the camp,” at or beyond the Temple courtyard, so long as the blood from the sacrificial animals were collected and splinked by a priest on the altar, on pain of death. In Leviticus 17 it says if one were to make a sacrifice, “in the camp or out of the camp,” the blood must be brought to the tabernacle, and the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar. The critical performance of a sacrifice, including the Passover sacrifice, is that “the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle” (verse 6).

So the 256,500 lambs mentioned by Josephus need not be sacrificed within the Temple courtyard. In fact, most of them could be sacrificed outside, but not too far, least during the trip to the altar in front of the Temple the blood collected in their bowls could set down, and they might coagulate before a priest could sprinkle the blood upon the altar before the Lord. So there is absolutely no doubt about the accuracy of Josephus’ testimony.

Second, the slaughtering of the Passover lamb needed not be done by a Levite or a priest. Any layman (hence the phrase “the whole congregation of Israel” – usually head of household – were allowed to kill the Passover lamb, provided they were ceremonially clean, otherwise the Levites or priests might have to do it for them (II Chronicles 30:1).

The whole assembly could kill their lamb, and most would have done so beyond the Temple courtyard, “without waiting for the priests” to kill for them as testified by Philo (Special Laws, II, XXVII). The requirements were that the ones who did the killing must have to be circumcised and be ceremonially clean. Second and most important, the blood must be taken to the Temple courtyard and only a priest could sprinkle upon the altar as commanded in Leviticus 17. 

1 And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying,

2 “Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them: ‘This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, saying:

3 Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel who killeth an ox or lamb or goat in the camp, or who killeth it out of the camp,

Rashi: Who slaughters an ox, a lamb, [or a goat]: Scripture is speaking of [slaughtering] holy sacrifices [not of slaughtering ordinary animals], for Scripture continues, “to offer up as a sacrifice” (next verse). – [Torath Kohanim 17:91]

Rashi: inside the camp: But outside the Courtyard. — [Torath Kohanim 17:89; Zev.107b]

4 and bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation to offer an offering unto the Lord before the tabernacle of the Lord, blood shall be imputed unto that man: he hath shed blood. And that man shall be cut off from among his people, (Leviticus 17:1-4).

Any person offering a sacrifice inside or outside the Temple precinct but its blood not carried to the Temple be offered at the altar before the Lord risked being “cut off from among his people” (Leviticus 17:3-4); that man “is liable to the death penalty” (Rashi). It’s a serious charge, hence the Passover sacrifice couldn’t be practised in Galilee nor in Babylon but near Jerusalem. “Blood shall be reckoned to that man; he hath shed blood, and that man shall be destroyed from his people” (Targum).

If the symbolism is to be carried over to the New Testament period, Jesus Christ didn’t die within the Temple Courtyard, but outside, even outside the city walls — “outside the camp” — outside the Walls of Jerusalem. What an amazing parallel!

~~~

For the rest of chapter 17, Fred Coulter went to quote or but more often misquote from many non-biblical sources. From experiences cited in previous critiques, his misquoting is obvious, blatant and a constant irritant that it’s not worth following him to — Dr. Lauterbach, John G. Wilkinson, Solomon Zeitlin, Philo, Josephus, Joachim Jeremias, Alfred Edersheim, etc. Besides, he is so spiteful of the Rabbinic interpretation that everything he quoted had to be twisted to suit his preconceived notion of an early fourteenth passover. 

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We will, instead, go back to a critical point about Deuteronomy 16 being edited. Fred Coulter, Frank Nelte and John Ritenbaugh have all colluded that the text, especially chapter 16:1-8 have been forged. They all meant it in the maligning sense, of course, their minds are vented on attacking a holy man of God, Ezra. 

So back to chapter 15. There were lots of more to say in this chapter:

Under Sanballat’s jurisdiction, a temple was built on Mount Gerizim, which was originally the Mount of Blessing for the children of Israel (Deut. 27:12). Now Samaria had a temple similar to the one in Jerusalem. Manasseh, a descendant of Aaron, was a high priest, and he had a whole corps of Levites as assistant priests. They were setting up a “Moses-like religion” that would compete with the true worship of God. For their Scriptural authority, they claimed and used the books of Moses, the first five books of the Bible, called the Torah. (See Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 11, Chapters 7 and 8.) They offered the commanded sacrifices, observed the Sabbath, festivals and holy days, and fulfilled all the requirements of the Torah—with the exception of the law against intermarriage. Because they had their own temple and their own priesthood, they did not have to comply with the law against intermarriage. They were now under Sanballat’s jurisdiction, where they were safe from any interference by Ezra and Nehemiah. Through their counterfeit religion, they could begin to influence Jews everywhere in the empire.

What an alarming turn of events! What an absolute disaster this could bring! Only sixty miles north of Jerusalem was a competing religion, a new Jewish/Samaritan religion, with authentic copies of the books of Moses, the first five books of the Bible. Because the founders of this religion had rebelled against the law of God, it was obvious that they did not respect His Word. They would not hesitate to alter the text to suit their own purposes. The Scriptures were in great danger of being corrupted. (Pg 181)

The narrative above is already self-contradictory – if they had “offered the commanded sacrifices, observed the Sabbath, festivals and holy days, and fulfilled all the requirements of the Torah” how could this same religion be a “counterfeit religion”?

Second, if Ezra had edited the Scriptures, a comparison would show the difference with the Samaritans’ version: “with authentic copies of the books of Moses, the first five books of the Bible.” The Samaritan religion was established earlier, but close and north of Jerusalem, around 720 BC. Since they have their original Samaritan version, “authentic copies” as Fred Coulter put it, any editing by Ezra, will show the difference.

Shortly after the northern Exile, in II Kings 17:

24 And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel; and they possessed Samaria and dwelt in the cities thereof.

25 And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there that they feared not the Lord; therefore the Lord sent lions among them, which slew some of them.

26 Therefore they spoke to the king of Assyria, saying, “The nations which thou hast removed and placed in the cities of Samaria know not the manner of the God of the land; therefore He hath sent lions among them, and behold, they slay them because they know not the manner of the God of the land.”

27 Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, “Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land.”

28 Then one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear the Lord.

29 However every nation made gods of their own and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt.

32 So they feared the Lord, and made unto themselves from the lowest of them priests of the high places, who sacrificed for them in the houses of the high places.

So “one of the priests whom ye brought from thence,” (verse 27) had been brought from among the northern Exile to teach the new settlers. It is with certainty he had some scrolls of the Torah with him, otherwise how could he teach the new settlers? By the time Ezra arrived, (around 440-480 BC), the Samaritan religion would have been around for about 250 years. 

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But for both versions — Deuteronomy 16:1-8 — evidence shows otherwise especially the Passover in verse 2: “of the flock and the herd” are exactly the same. And second, the usage of Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread are similarly used interchangeably in both versions. Hence this proves conclusively that there were no editings and the composite characteristics of the festivals were established by Moses himself.

Deuteronomy 16 (KJ21)

1“Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover unto the Lord thy God; for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

2 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the Passover unto the Lord thy God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the Lord shall choose to place His name there.

3 Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it. Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt in haste, that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.

4 And there shall be no leavened bread seen with thee in all thy borders seven days, neither shall there anything of the flesh, which thou sacrificed the first day at evening, remain all night until the morning.

5 Thou mayest not sacrifice the Passover within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee;

6 but at the place which the Lord thy God shall choose to place His name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the Passover at evening, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt.

7 And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, and thou shalt turn in the morning and go unto thy tents.

8 Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the Lord thy God. Thou shalt do no work therein.

The Samaritan Pentateuch (translated by Aleksandr Sigalov)

Deuteronomy 16

1 Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night. 2 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover unto the LORD thy God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the LORD God of you shall choose to place his name there. 3 Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt in haste: that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life. 4 And there shall be no leavened bread seen with thee in all thy coast seven days; neither shall there any thing of the flesh, which thou sacrificedst the first day between the even, remain all night until the morning. 5 And thou mayest not sacrifice the passover within any of thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee: 6 But in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name there, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt. 7 And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose: and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents. 8 Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread: and on the seventh day shall be a celebration to the LORD thy God: thou shalt not do any work of service therein

Even though the Samaritans consider the Feast of Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread as two distinct festivals, their Pentateuch remains much the same as the Masoretic Text in Deuteronomy 16:1-8. The difference, if any, is no more than the difference between the KJ21 and the NKJV, or between the KJV and the RSV.

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Fred Coulter, Frank Nelte and John Ritenbaugh — these are Liars and Blind Guides! Three wolves who had subjected themselves to lyings and deceits and come to believe in their own mischieves. They came to study the Bible with a preconceived notion that the Passover is at the start of the fourteenth. So when other Scriptures don’t fit into their preconceived notion, they attacked the Scriptures; attack King Hezekiah, attack King Josiah, where both conducted a centralised Feast of Tabernacle and Passover in Jerusalem; attack the people behind the Scriptures, singling out Ezra who is a righteous scribe as the main culprit in vandalising Deuteronomy 16:1-8. Is there any wonder for us to wonder if the Sovereign God deems these Samaritan-influenced apostates as the three shepherds whom He hates?

~~~~~

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (i)

•February 28, 2021 • 1 Comment

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (i)

Passover on the 14th or 15th?

Fred R. Coulter
Christian Biblical Church of God
Post Office Box 1442
Hollister California 95024-1442

This is a Critique of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover. The main issue is whether the Passover is on the early or late fourteenth of Nisan. Quoted are Fred Coulter’s book, from an internet online version, which I presume, is his latest. Most of his quotes are in block form, in PINK and indented. The Scriptures, in RED, must be our primary focus and guide.

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Chapters 14 – 15

Ezra was a righteous scribe. He was also a righteous high priest. His priestly lineage could be traced all the way back to Aaron, the first high priest established under Moses (Ezra 7:1-5). Ezra returned to Jerusalem from Babylonian exile and faithfully reintroduced the Torah to all those who followed him (Ezra 7:10 and Nehemiah 8). For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments. He was so righteous that he was regarded as the second Moses in the Voice Translation of Ezra 7:10 He was like Moses who tenaciously studied, practiced, and taught the Eternal’s law to Israel.

With the above in mind, we’ll continue with our critique:

WHAT IS THE TRUE MEANING OF DEUTERONOMY 16?

The advocates of a 15th Passover claim that the commands of God in Deuteronomy 16 support the temple sacrifice of the Passover lambs.  On the surface, it appears that these commands required the sacrificing of the Passover at the temple, and that the Passover and the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread were combined into one feast. This interpretation of Deuteronomy 16 is taught by Jewish and Christian scholars alike. As the Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible states, “The section in Deut. 16:1-10 was interpreted as an attempt to abolish the private Passover celebrations…” (p. 668). 

Is this interpretation of Deuteronomy 16 correct?  Did God abolish the domestic Passover by commanding that the Passover sacrifice be offered at the temple?  If that is the meaning of God’s commands in Deuteronomy 16, then these commands are clearly contradicting His commands in Exodus 12, Numbers 9 and Leviticus 23 concerning the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (The Christian Passover, pg 159)

During the forty years of wandering in the desert, the children of Israel performed their sacrifices at the Sanctuary, but when the Temple was established God told King Solomon that He had chosen for Himself to move the place of sacrifice to Jerusalem. Hence a Temple-centered sacrifice in Jerusalem is a God-ordained command.

And just a reminder — The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, published by Abingdon Press from 2006 to 2009  — Its chief editor is feminist Katharine Doob Sakenfeld, a spinoff from the Reform Movement!

Thus Solomon finished the house of the Lord and the king’s house; and all that came into Solomon’s heart to do in the house of the Lord and in his own house, he prosperously effected. And the Lord appeared to Solomon by night and said unto him: “I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place for Myself for a house of sacrifice” (II Chronicles 7:11-12).

O templo do rei Salomão | Lições da Bíblia para crianças | Biblical art,  Jehovah, Bible art

And “this place” is in Jerusalem:

“I (God) have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there” (II Chronicles 6:6).

And continue in II Chronicles 7:1 Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the Lord filled the house. 2 And the priests could not enter into the house of the Lord, because the glory of the Lord had filled the Lord’S house.

3 And when all the children of Israel saw how the fire came down and the glory of the Lord upon the house, they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and worshiped and praised the Lord, saying, “For He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever.”

4 Then the king and all the people offered sacrifices before the Lord.

5 And King Solomon offered a sacrifice of twenty and two thousand oxen, and a hundred and twenty thousand sheep; so the king and all the people dedicated the house of God.

That place chosen by God is Jerusalem as affirmed in II Chronicles 6:6, “I have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there.” Only the stiff-necked think otherwise.

I King 9:3 And the Lord said unto him, “I have heard thy prayer and thy supplication that thou hast made before Me. I have hallowed this house which thou hast built, to put My name there forever; and Mine eyes and Mine heart shall be there perpetually.

II Chronicles 7:12 And the Lord appeared to Solomon by night and said unto him: “I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place [Jerusalem] for Myself for a house of sacrifice.

I King 9:25 And three times in a year Solomon offered burnt offerings and peace offerings upon the altar which he built unto the Lord, and he burned incense upon the altar that was before the Lord. So he finished the house.

Adam Clarke: Three times in a year did Solomon offer – These three times were: 1. The passover 2. The feast of pentecost 3. The feast of tabernacles.

Whedon’s Commentary on the Bible – Three times in a year — At the three great feasts required by the law of Moses. Exodus 23:14-16. The feast of unleavened bread, or the passover; the feast of harvest, or of weeks, (Exodus 34:22;) and the feast of ingathering, or of tabernacles. 

Undoubtedly this means at the three solemn great feasts (Deuteronomy 16:16) — the Passover (which is often used interchangeably with the Days of Unleavened Bread), Pentecost and Tabernacles. And Jerusalem is not only a house of sacrifices. It is also a house of prayers:

II Chronicles 7:13 If I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to devour the land or if I send pestilence among My people,14 if My people, who are called by My name, shall humble themselves and pray, and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and will heal their land.

15 Now Mine eyes shall be open and Mine ears attentive unto the prayer that is made in this place.

16 For now have I chosen and sanctified this house, that My name may be there for ever; and Mine eyes and Mine heart shall be there perpetually.

And many people, seeking the Lord God of Israel, setting their hearts right, went to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices, any sacrifice, including the most important of all sacrifices, the Passover:

“And after them, out of all the tribes of Israel, such as set their hearts to seek the Lord God of Israel came to Jerusalem to sacrifice unto the Lord God of their fathers,” (II Chronicles 11:16).

Before Moses sacrifices could be made anywhere. But once the tabernacle was built, Moses received the command from the Lord God of Israel that sacrifices could only be brought to the “entrance of the tent of meeting” as instructed in Leviticus 17. And when the Temple was built in Jerusalem, God placed His name, eyes and heart there “forever” and “perpetually,” (I King 9:3).

Although Deuteronomy 16 contains instructions for the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the two other holy days seasons, the fact that the word “Passover” appears in Verse 1 has caused great confusion in the minds of many Bible students and scholars. They are not aware that these verses were edited by Ezra long after the book of Deuteronomy was originally written, and that in Ezra’s time the entire eight-day observance of the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread was called “Passover.” When we understand that the term “Passover” was used for the Feast of Unleavened bread, the seeming discrepancy between Deuteronomy 16 and other Scriptural passages is eliminated. (Pg 165)

First of all, Ezra couldn’t have edited Deuteronomy 16 and yet remained one who “had prepared his heart to seek the law of the LORD,” (Ezra 7:10). He was so righteous that he was regarded as the second Moses, so how could he had obeyed the commandment: “not add to the Word that I tell you, and do not take away from it?” (Deuteronomy 4:2).

When we place all the jigsaw pieces together and they fix nicely, there isn’t any confusion. If the puzzle doesn’t fit, Fred Coulter’s understanding is obviously wrong, and so there is “great confusion.” The plain meaning of Deuteronomy 16 supports the theme that the amalgamation of the Passover with the Days of Unleavened Bread started way back during the Exodus. 

The books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers were mainly the words of God to His subjects — to Adam, to Abraham, to Jacob, to Moses — but in the book of Deuteronomy it was Moses speaking to the Israelites. Deuteronomy 1:1 saysThese are the words which Moses spoke unto all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the wilderness . . . 3 And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke unto the children of Israel according unto all that the Lord had given him in commandment unto them.”

Ezra Reading The Law To Jews Stock Illustration - Download Image Now -  iStock

So when Moses spoke, he spoke “according unto all that the Lord had given him.” He uses terms that were slightly different from what God spoke as expressed in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. In Deuteronomy Moses couldn’t be just repeating the same line, word for word, that God used before. Moses would sometimes clarify seemingly confusing issues, or to elucidate complex subjects as the wordings in Deuteronomy 16 show. 

Beside the fact that the Passover is a composite feast composed of an eight days festival, Scriptures show that it could be known by either of its names. Hence sometimes it is referred to as the Passover while other times as the Days of Unleavened Bread, as the following shows.

Deuteronomy 16:1 “Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover unto the Lord thy God; for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

Exodus 34:18 “The Feast of Unleavened Bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month of Abib; for in the month of Abib thou camest out from Egypt.

Both verses claim it was during their time that they came out of Egypt! This couldn’t be possible if Passover is distinct from the Days of Unleavened Bread. The children of Israel knew this composite characteristic from the beginning all along. There is no confusion. If Moses had any doubt, he had full access to God at the Holy of Holies at the Sanctuary to ask and seek clarification. One example is found in Numbers 9 when some Israelites had came in contact with the dead, and thought they couldn’t keep the Passover. Moses said to them, “Stand still, and I will hear what the Lord will command concerning you” (verse 8). Moses had never been denied access to God to seek clarification on any issue or for any reason.

The book of Deuteronomy is composed entirely of the words of Moses, spoken from his heart to his people Israel. And since Moses was a righteous man, he spoke in a language that we can understand, yet it’s the Word of God. Years later Ezra used the same methodology for those who returned from the Exile and who had lost the Hebrew language, and who knew only the Aramaic language, and this same process gave birth to the Targum, another source of the Scriptures that we should refer from time to time. And the Targum says in Exodus 12: that the Passover was a late fourteenth and the eating was on the fifteenth: “And you shall eat the flesh on that night, the fifteenth of Nisan . . .” 

The Targum is a Ezra-inspired Scripture.

Nehemiah 8:8 So they read in the book, in the law of God, distinctly, and gave the sense and caused them to understand the reading.

Nehemiah 8:8 implied not only the reading of the Law, but also made interpretation of its Hebraic meaning — its translation and interpretation — were simplifies from Hebrew to Aramaic, so that the common people in the streets could understand, and this practice was broadened and spread to all the synagogues in Judea. Before long the Aramaic Targum was written, and today, translated — including some explanations — in the English language.

Let’s have another look at the original Passover, during the Exodus:

Exodus 12:6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month, and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening (ben ha arbayim).

7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses wherein they shall eat it.

8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire; and with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. (The Targum identified that night as the night of the fifteenth of Nisan).

Note in verse 8 that the Targum identified that night as “the night of the fifteenth.” Along with the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, the Targum is also an important source of our Bible and ignoring it could only lead to our own paucity.

It was Ezra whose work gave rise to the Targum, translating the Hebrew Text to Aramaic so that the rank and file could understand. Ezra was a righteous priest and “a scribe skilled in the law.” Ezra 7:10 For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments. The Voice translated this same verse asHe (Ezra) was a second Moses, and tenaciously studied, practiced, and taught the Eternal’s law to Israel.”

Let’s have another look; let’s accept that the Pharisees sat on Moses’ seat as Christ instructed, instead of twisting the Scriptures for their own evil end and stigmatizing them:

The Death Angel Passes Over an Israelite Door Marked with the Blood of a  Lamb | ClipArt ETC

Exodus 12:6 says to keep the Passover, where the lamb was sacrificed at even — “after noon and until nightfall.” From verse 7 to 11, it is describing the night as the Passover, ending by saying “it is the Lord’S Passover.” So the Passover stretched into the Days of Unleavened Bread. The eating of unleavened bread also starts from the fourteenth of Nisan, at even (verse 18, ba-erev). 

Further, commenting on the beginning verse 8, “And they shall eat the flesh in that night,” the Targum translates this as the night of the fifteenth (of Nisan).

That same night was what the Lord (often deemed as the Death Angel) would do, to “execute judgment.” That night, when the Lord execute His judgment, was meant to be a memorial, and it was “a feast to the Lord.” The Targum says further, “And it was in the dividing of the night [idiom for midnight] of the fifteenth, that the Word of the Lord slew all the firstborn in the land of Mizraim (Egypt), from the firstborn son of Pharoh, who would have sat upon the throne of his kingdom, unto the firstborn sons of the kings who were captives in the dungeon as hostages under Pharoh’s hand.”

The subject was still the Passover — about how Passover was to be kept. What happened on the Passover night. And how we should be keeping Passover by having seven days of eating unleavened bread — observed Passover by eating unleavened bread for seven days. And this amalgamation is confirmed in the Mishnah:

What is the difference between the pesah [which was offered] in Egypt and the pesah of [subsequent] generations? The pesah in Egypt was taken on the tenth [of Nisan], And it required sprinkling with a bunch of hyssop on the lintel and on the two door-posts, And it was eaten in haste on one night, whereas the pesah of [subsequent] generations is kept the whole seven [days]. (Mishnah Pesachim 9) 

Only in verse 17 is the phrase “the Feast of Unleavened Bread” appears. And how should we keep it? The answer is found in verse 18; we are to keep it by eating unleavened bread from the fourteenth, at even. So the Days of Unleavened Bread starts a few hours before the fifteenth, overlapping with Passover which is also to start the fourteenth, at even. The Scriptures were a bit vague on casual reading, but on closer scrutiny, it is extremely clear. The two feasts, known by either name, are a composite, and this Exodus 12 account shows that the original distinction between the two feasts were well interweaved right from the start. 

Moses knew he would not be crossing the Jordan with the Israelites. So he took the opportunity to point the Israelites toward the Lord and impressed upon a new generation the importance of heeding His Commandments. For God it is His glory to conceal a mystery, sometimes to hide a truth and sometimes to hook out those having a contemptuous attitude. And Moses warned those found to be guilty of persisting with this contemptuous spirit, a serious charge, would be put to death: 

Deuteronomy 16:18 “You shall appoint judges and officers in all your towns that the Lord your God is giving you, according to your tribes, and they shall judge the people with righteous judgment.

Deuteronomy 17:11 According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand, nor to the left. 12 And the man who will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest who standeth to minister there before the Lord thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die.

Moses knew he would die soon and his understanding had been conveyed to the judges, the Levites and priests where the true interpretation of the law were taught. So in the book of Deuteronomy Moses spoke and explained unto all Israel “according unto all that the Lord had given him” as to how to keep them, the blessing they would have if they obey, or cursing if they disobey, in a language they could understand. Men may have good intentions, but may do things seen as presumptuously? What is presumptuous or presumptuously? 

Below are its synonyms: 

arrogant, bumptious, cavalier, chesty, haughty, high-and-mighty, high-handed, high-hat, huffish, huffy, imperious, important, lofty, lordly, masterful, overweening, peremptory, pompous, presuming, pretentious, self-asserting, self-assertive, sniffy, supercilious, superior, uppish, uppity

And those judgments have the force of law, and of God. In Deuteronomy 19:17 Then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the Lord, before the priests and the judges. When we stand before a judge, we stand before God. “Then his master shall bring him unto the judges [H430 elohim]” (Exodus 21:6). In the Septuagint, it is translated as the judgment-seat of God. Elsewhere God says He is coming as a consuming fire. “For the Lord thy God is a consuming fire” (Deuteronomy 4:24, 9:3, Hebrew 12:29). 

On another note, the word “pesach” has a few timeframes. Just like the word “yowm” could be a 24-hour day or a 12-hour day, both concepts are contained within such a verse like Genesis 1:5. But pesach could be any one of four timeframes:

(a) An approximately 6-hour period — “after noon and until nightfall” erev or ben ha arbayim, when the lamb was killed

(b) A one day 24-hours concept, as in Numbers 28:16 “‘And on the fourteenth day of the first month is the Passover of the Lord.

(c) A seven-day festival as in Exodus 12:4-15, Deuteronomy 16:1-8, and as in Ezekiel 45:21 where it is explicitly described, “In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, ye shall have the Passover, a feast of seven days. Unleavened bread shall be eaten. 

(d) An 8-day period when the 7-days Days of Unleavened Bread is added to the 14th day Passover. The whole period is also known as the Passover. Another reason is given below: Back when the months of the Jewish calendar were determined by observations of the new moon, eyewitnesses would bring their testimony to the rabbinical court in Jerusalem, and the court would sanctify the new month based on this testimony. But faraway communities such as Babylonia couldn’t get the message in time, and didn’t know when the new month had begun, though they could narrow the possibilities to two days. So to play it safe, they observed another day, so Pesach were observed as an eight-day festival.

Deuteronomy 16 clarifies some earlier Scriptures as to how to keep the Passover:

(i) Passover was to be offered in the place which the Lord shall choose, not within any of their gates (Deuteronomy 16:2,5). It was no longer in their houses as was during the Exodus, hence a “domestic passover” for later observances is a misconception.

(ii) For purposes of the timing of the sacrifice of Pesach, the time is erev (Deuteronomy 16:6), the same time as ben ha arbayim (Exodus 12:6). Thus erev, for this purpose, is also “after noon and until nightfall” (Exodus 12:6).

(iii) Erev (Deuteronomy 16:6) is being defined as “at the going down of the sun.” It’s the first moment when the sun starts to go down when it passes its zenith. It is also the same time to start eating unleavened bread (Exodus 12:18). So the eating of unleavened bread started earlier than eating Pesach by some 6 or more hours.

(iv) God specifies that three times a year all males should appear before Him in the place which He shall choose, which were later identified by God to be in Jerusalem (II Chronicles 6:6): in the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, and in the Feast of Tabernacles (Deuteronomy 16:16, which clarifies Exodus 23:14,17; 34:23).

We should study the Scriptures in great detail and scrutinise microscopically what it actually says, not presuming what we thought it says. Start eating unleavened bread from the fourteenth onward, at even, baerev, don’t wait until the fifteenth: “Thou shalt not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread” reaffirms Exodus 23:18.

The originator of the idea that these feasts as distinct originated from the Samaritans and then penetrated the Sadducees, who died out during the AD 70 inferno, but resurfaced during the ninth and tenth century by the Karaites. And since the last two centuries, this Samaritan idea had been promoted by the Jewish Reform Movement, and since then by the Worldwide Church of God and its splinters: the CoG Communities. “You shall know them by their fruits” Matthew 7:16. And they all bear the same Samaritan fruits.

And just as a reminder of what Fred Coulter wrote so truthfully of himself and his comrade in the CoG Communities back to Chapter One: 

“False doctrines and misinterpretations are continually being spread because ministers and teachers use the Word of God deceitfully. How diabolical it is to take the Word of God, which is the truth, and misapply it to create a lie!” (Pg 13)

So true, for it was well prophesied way ahead when God looked down from heaven and said in Hosea 11:12: “Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit.” 

~~15~~

In this chapter, we will examine the historical circumstances that led to the modifications that Ezra made in Deuteronomy 16. These same circumstances led Ezra to institute a “new Passover law,” which officially centralized the Passover at Jerusalem. As in the days of Hezekiah and Josiah, this action was an emergency measure in response to a national crisis. The true worship of God in Jerusalem was being threatened by a Samaritan conspiracy, and the Scriptures—particularly the books of the Law—were in danger of being corrupted. (The Christian Passover, pg 174)

Ezra Reading the Law to the Jews', 1890. Ezra, a scribe and High... News  Photo - Getty Images

Ezra would have sinned if he had instituted a “new Passover law.” The Scriptures says Ezra was a righteous scribe and a righteous high priest. After returning to Jerusalem from Babylonian exile, he reintroduced the Torah to all those who followed him (Ezra 7:10 and Nehemiah 8). For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments. He was so righteous that he was regarded as the second Moses, but Fred Coulter finds it appropriate to demonise a righteous man of God, sugarcoating his statements but actually vilifying him by accusing him of vandalising the Scriptures.

To preserve the true worship of God, Ezra used his authority as priest and religious leader of the Jews to edit and canonize the Old Testament Scriptures.  As part of his work in preserving the Book of the Law, known today as the Pentateuch, Ezra edited Deuteronomy 16 in order to make the text more understandable to the Jews of his day.  Since they referred to the Feast of Unleavened Bread as “Passover,” Ezra edited the commands in Deuteronomy 16 to fit this later terminology.  The offerings for the seven days of unleavened bread are referred to as “passover-offerings” because the Feast of Unleavened Bread was called “Passover.” (Pg 174)

While Ezra was responsible for centralizing the Passover, it is important to remember that his action was intended to protect the true worship of God. He was not acting in opposition to God’s ordinances and therefore was NOT ACTING AGAINST THE AUTHORITY OF GOD. (Pg 177)

Why such doublespeak above? Or a gobbledygook? A doublespeak is a language that deliberately obscures, disguises, distorts, or reverses the meaning of words. If centralizing the Passover in Jerusalem is not against God, then it is for God. Why so much ambiguity in his language to distort his true message?

A gobbledygook is usually used as either a substitute for a speaker’s lack of knowledge or confusion about a subject. If vandalising the Scriptures is “NOT ACTING AGAINST THE AUTHORITY OF GOD” then what is it? 

This is not only lying but playing with various forms of deceits, a prime example of Ephraim’s character:

“Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit;” (Hosea 11:12).

Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the Lord and to teach in Israel His laws, statutes and judgments. He was so highly regarded that he was appraised as the second Moses.

To this day, the members of this Samaritan religion keep their Passover at the beginning of the 14th, in the same manner as their ancestors. The fact that this Jewish/Samaritan sect has always observed a domestic Passover indicates that the temple sacrifice of the Passover lambs was not the practice in Jerusalem when their religion was founded. The following description of their Passover confirms that it has not changed from the original domestic observance: (Pg 182)

No, they don’t. The Samaritans kept their passovers outdoors at Mount Gerizim, just as the Sun was about to set and their celebration went into the night under the light of the moon, near today’s city of Nablus in the West Bank. This mountain isn’t at their homes, so to say it’s a “domestic Passover” is another lie. 

Passover: The Annual Israelite Samaritan Sacrifice and Festival

But yes, the Samaritans kept their passover at the beginning of the fourteenth, and through Tobiah, the Ammonite, this belief penetrated the Jewish community through a sect later known as the Sadducees, accompanied by their close comrade, the Boethusians, who both died out during the AD 70 inferno, but this belief resurfaced in the ninth and tenth century with the birth of a Jewish sect known as the Karaites. 

And since the last two centuries, this idea of an early fourteenth passover was regenerated by the Jewish Reform Movement and modern Protestants (A.T. Olmstead, including Ernst Würthwein both works Fred relied heavily from) springing forth as experts many from Jewish background. And then at the tail end by the Worldwide Church of God and today its Laodicean splinters: the Church of God Communities who are described as blind, wretched and naked. “You shall know them by their fruits.” And they all bear the same fruits of whom the CoG Communities today follows exactly in the same manner like their forebears. 

“They, therefore, observe Pesach exactly as it was observed two or three thousand years ago [emphasis added]….Modern historical research has proved that the Samaritans are not descendants of the heathen colonists settled in the northern kingdom by the conquerors of Samaria, as was once assumed….Actually the Samaritans of today are a small and poor remnant of an old and great Jewish sect….The only religious books that they possess, however, are the Pentateuch and Joshua….these two hundred [remnant] Samaritans observe Pesach to this day on Mount Gerizim, in a manner that other Jews ceased practising thousands of years ago. The custom of offering sacrifices has died out with the Samaritans, except on the fourteenth day of Nisan, when they offer the ceremonial Pesach sacrifice” (Schluss, The Jewish Festivals, pp. 60-61). (Pg 182)

Another book published by Schocken, a spinoff of the Reform Movement, author Hayyim Schluss would like us to think that the Samaritans are “not descendants of the heathen colonists” but “a small and poor remnant of an old and great Jewish sect.” But the Scriptures give a different view, that the new settlers weren’t a Jewish sect but pagans from various regions of Babylonia when the Assyrians captured their land and redistributed its captives throughout the Assyrian empire. The background of the arrival of the Samaritans to live in Samaria is recorded in the Scriptures for our enlightenment, hence there is no need to seek guidance from Schluss’ heresy. 

How Ukrainian women saved the Samaritans of Mount Gerizim | Palestinian  territories | The Guardian

And the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hands of despoilers until He had cast them out of His sight. 21 For He rent Israel from the house of David, and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. And Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord, and made them sin a great sin. 22 For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they departed not from them, 23 until the Lord removed Israel out of His sight, as He had said by all His servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day. 24 And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel; and they possessed Samaria and dwelt in the cities thereof (II Kings 17:20-24).

The newly arrived Samaritans occupied the country formerly belonging to the tribe of Ephraim, Manasseh and the other Lost Tribes where most of today’s Church of God communities come from. The capital of the country was Samaria, then a large and splendid city. When the ten tribes were carried away into captivity to Assyria, the king of Assyria sent people from Cutha, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim to inhabit Samaria (II Kings 17:24). So for simplicity sake, Jews assert that the Samaritans are “Cutheans.”

In order to preserve the true worship of God, it was essential to differentiate the Scriptures of the Jerusalem Jews from the Scriptures of the Jewish/Samaritan religion. The first step was to set the Scriptures in order and canonize each book as the authentic Word of God. When this work was completed, accurate copies of the entire text had to be made and distributed to Jewish synagogues throughout the empire. Once canonized, the Word of God could be preserved for all time. (Pg 183)

As part of the canonization of the Scriptures, Ezra also edited the books which became the Old Testament. This editing included the substitution of current terminology for ancient names that were no longer in use. (Pg 184)

Ezra edited Deuteronomy 16 from the then old Samaritan version, so Fred Coulter alleged, as the Samaritan version must be the authentic version. Quoting his own work, “The Original Bible Restored,” he says, “Although a few alterations were made in the text of the Old Testament after its canonization, there is no question that Ezra was the one who compiled the books, edited them and canonized them.” But of course, he was mainly referring to the vandalisation of Deuteronomy 16 (mainly verses 1-8). 

“Whatever I command you, observe to do it. Thou shalt not add thereto nor diminish from it (Deuteronomy 12:32). Vandalising the Bible is a serious charge, risking eternal life (Revelation 22:18-19). But on the other hand, if Ezra isn’t guilty of vandalising, then his accusers would be in danger of death.

Fred Coulter’s charge isn’t alone. He has a few comrades who share his view. 

From Frank W. Nelte, referring to Deuteronomy 16:1, 2, 4, 5, 6

These verses give the impression that the Passover is being spoken about. But the word “Passover” was deviously inserted into these verses by some dishonest scribe. The motivation for these devious changes was to justify the Jewish custom of referring to the Seven Days of Unleavened Bread as “Passover”.

The evidence for the fraudulent changes in this section of Scripture is not found in preserved manuscripts but in the pages of the Bible itself. We are dealing with a passage that is absolutely vital to upholding a Jewish belief, which belief is clearly unbiblical according to all the other Scriptures in the entire Old Testament. And these fraudulent changes have been accepted in every preserved manuscript, because they endorse a specific Jewish custom.

In addition, there is also a mistranslation in verse 6.

The only evidence for these alterations consists of exposing incompatible, contradictory and illogical statements in the changed text, when compared to other biblical passages. The person who altered this text overlooked some things which expose his fraudulent tampering.

Here are the changes that were made:

In these verses some scribe REMOVED the expression “the Feast of Unleavened Bread” from verse 1, and then REPLACED IT with the word “Passover”. In addition, this scribe also simply INSERTED the word “Passover” into the text of verses 2, 5 and 6 (SOME SCRIBES CHANGE THE TEXT OF DEUTERONOMY 16:1-6).

From John W. Ritenbaugh:

Guess Who’s the Top Dog?

In the context of Deuteronomy 16, the word “Passover” is beginning  to look clearly out of place. As we continue to look further, we are going to see that verses 1-8 have nothing to do at all with instructions for the Passover lamb, but rather for Unleavened Bread, and specifically the Night To Be Much Observed, which is of course the first night after the Passover, not the same night as the Passover.

How did the name “Passover” get in there? God certainly did not inspire it to be in there. It had to have been edited into Deuteronomy 16 at a much later time (when the entire eight days of the spring festival were commonly called Passover) than from when it was originally written. You will see this very clearly in the New Testament that the entire spring feast was commonly called Passover by the Jews. Somebody, in copying, must have deliberately removed the name “Unleavened Bread” and placed the name “Passover” into Deuteronomy 16 in order to give support to a 15th Passover—to a Temple-centered 15th Passover (Passover transcript, Part 9). 

“Why were these particular Scriptures chosen as the ones to be edited? It was very likely because Deuteronomy 16 does not contain any numbered dates—for example, “Passover is on the 14th, and the Feast of Unleavened Bread on the 15th.” Because of the lack of numbers, the text in Deuteronomy 16 could be edited and changed to give the appearance of a 15th Passover. But if the texts of Exodus 12, Numbers 9, and Leviticus 23 would be altered, somebody would have to alter the numbers, and that would result in very dramatic editing. That was unthinkable, and it would have been very obvious, too, that the Scriptures had been tampered with.”

“Who would have the authority to make such a change from Unleavened Bread to Passover in Deuteronomy 16? The finger of history points to someone during or after the time of Ezra. Ezra came along in the period roughly between 530 BC and about 515 BC. When Ezra came on the scene, the Jews, who had just come out of captivity, were again starting down the same path that originally took them into captivity” (Passover transcript, Part 10).

Tampering and vandalising God’s Word are serious charges, whose penalty is death (Revelation 22:18-19):

“For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book: If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book.

“And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the Book of Life and out of the Holy City, and from the things which are written in this book,” Revelation 22:18-19. 

Zechariah 11:8 is one of the most intriguing verse in the Scriptures. It says, Three shepherds also I cut off in one month; and my soul loathed them and their soul also abhorred me.Who are these three shepherds? Could they be Fred Coulter, Frank Nelte and John Ritenbaugh?

My nerves stand on end when I think about this. I hope it isn’t, of course.

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A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (h)

•February 27, 2021 • 1 Comment

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (h)

Passover on the 14th or 15th?

Fred R. Coulter
Christian Biblical Church of God
Post Office Box 1442
Hollister California 95024-1442

This is a Critique of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover. The main issue is whether the Passover is on the early or late fourteenth of Nisan. Quoted are Fred Coulter’s book, from an internet online version, which I presume, is his latest. Most of his quotes are in block form, in PINK and indented so as to differentiate his writings from other comments. The Scriptures, in RED, must and foremost, be our primary focus and guide.

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Chapters 12 – 13

II Chronicles 29:2 says “And he (Hezekiah) did that which was right in the sight of the Lord” and this, of course, includes sanctifying the house of the Lord cleaning the altar, all the vessels, and the table for the shewbread (verses 17-18). It was reemphasized in verse 12 that the commandment of the king, as well as “by the word of the Lord.”  

Verse 12 says: “Also the hand of God was in Judah, to give them one heart to do the commandment of the king and of the princes by the word of the Lord.” The burnt offerings and peace offerings were accompanied by much rejoicing, enhanced by having music, songs, accompanied by various instruments — cymbals, psalteries, harps and trumpets — which were commandments of King David and other prophets, and they performed with praises and gladness.

In his account of Hezekiah’s Passover, Ezra records that “the runners went with the letters from the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah…according to the commandment of the king…” (II Chron. 30:6). (The Christian Passover, pg 142)

After taking counsel, the decree was to invite the other tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh — to make proclamation throughout all Israel, from Beersheba even to Dan — and the running and sending out letters to inform the other tribes, were the king’s command to keep the Passover in the second month. “So the posts passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh even unto Zebulun: but they laughed them to scorn, and mocked them” (II Chronicles 30:10).

In response to Hezekiah’s command to come to Jerusalem for the Passover, Ezra records that “…many people gathered at Jerusalem to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the second month…” (verse 13). This is the first Scriptural record in which the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Passover are used interchangeably in referring to the spring festival season (verses 1-2, 13). (Pg 143)

No, it’s not the first record. Earlier in the original Exodus 12 the two feasts have been all along a composite. As a reminder of my observation of previous critique (chapter 11):

Of the 51 verses in Exodus 12 (not counting verse 1):

— 29 are clearly pertaining to the Passover or its ordinances (2-14, 21-28, 43-50); 

—   5 are judgement on those not defended by the blood of the sacrifice (29-33); still related to the Passover above, totalling 34 verses relating to Passover or its ordinances;

—   8 are coming out of Egypt (35-38, 40-42, 51); and 

— only 8 are about unleavened bread (15-20, 34, 39). In fact, eating unleavened bread wasn’t planned; it was thrust upon them, v 34.

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Further, in Deuteronomy 16:1-8 when Moses wrote it in his last days (39 years after the original Exodus), the names Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread were used interchangeably. In Hezekiah’s instance, the name “Passover” is used in II Chronicles 30:2 “to keep the Passover in the second month,” and then in verse 13 “And there assembled at Jerusalem many people to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the second month.” 

They were indeed a composite feast, right at the start in Exodus, and reaffirmed during Hezekiah’s time. And even in the New Testament times, the Gospel writers also used the terms “Passover” and “Feast of Unleavened Bread” interchangeably. 

Second, Hezekiah was a good king, who was righteous before God. The Scriptures speak well of him, who “kept His commandments which the Lord commanded Moses. And the Lord was with him”: 

II Kings 18:3 And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that David his father did. 4 He removed the high places, and broke the images, and cut down the Asherah poles, and broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for until those days the children of Israel burned incense to it; and he called it Nehushtan. 5 He trusted in the Lord God of Israel, so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any who were before him. 6 For he cleaved to the Lord and departed not from following Him, but kept His commandments which the Lord commanded Moses. 7 And the Lord was with him, and he prospered whithersoever he went forth; and he rebelled against the king of Assyria and served him not.

And they (the congregation of Israel that assembled at Jerusalem) stood in their place, according to their order “according to the law of Moses,” II Chronicles 30:16. Surely anyone who postulates about Hezekiah not keeping the law of Moses is a liar, and Fred Coulter continues:

As we continue to study the account in II Chronicles, we will see that Hezekiah’s Passover is the first record in Scripture of killing the Passover lambs at the temple.  Although Ezra’s account does not state the time that the lambs were slain, it appears that they were slain during the day portion of the 14th.

. . . This is also the first Scriptural record of killing the Passover at the temple and dashing the blood of the lamb against the altar instead of applying the blood to the door posts at home, as was done with the domestic sacrifice of the lamb. Why did Hezekiah institute these changes in the observance of the Passover? (Pg 143)

It is an absolute truth that the Passover lamb were slain during the day portion of the 14th, but it wasn’t the first time. So says  II Kings 18:3 And he [Hezekiah] did that which was right in the sight of the Lord. Only those with a perverted mind says otherwise. 

Second, Leviticus 17 says if one were to make a sacrifice, any sacrifice including the Passover “in the camp” or “out of the camp,” the blood must be brought to the tabernacle, and the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle (verse 6).

In verse 8, it says, “And thou shalt say unto them: ‘Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among you, who offereth a burnt offering or sacrifice. In the Good News Translation, it says “who offer a burnt offering or any other sacrifice.” 

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Referring to the phrase “that offereth a burnt offering or sacrifice,” John Gill says “any other sacrifice besides a burnt offering.” All indications are that the sacrifice mentioned would inevitably include the Passover sacrifice, only that the GNT made it clearer. 

Leviticus 17 in the Targum gave a clearer warning:

“And the Lord spake with Mosheh, saying: Speak with Aharon and with his sons, and with the sons of Israel, and tell them: This is the word which the Lord hath commanded, saying: A man of the house of Israel, young or old, who shall kill as a sacrifice a bullock, or lamb, or goat in the camp, or who killeth it without the camp, and bringeth it not to the door of the tabernacle of ordinance to offer it an oblation before the Lord, before the tabernacle of the Lord, the blood of slaughter shall be reckoned to that man, and it shall be to him as if he had shed innocent blood, and that man shall be destroyed from his people.”

The critical performance of a sacrifice or any sacrifice “in the camp” or “out of the camp” which includes the Passover, is that “the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle.” 

Since memorial time, the priests had sprinkled the blood upon the alter evidently from the time of Moses and evidentently down to King Hezekiah and Ezra. The penalty for infringement is DEATH: it is “as if he had shed innocent blood, and that man shall be destroyed from his people.” If Moses had any doubt about such ruling, he had all the opportunity and time to ask God who dwelt between the cherubim in the Sanctuary for any clarification.

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There is not one detail in the account which resembles the domestic observance that is recorded in Exodus 12.  To the contrary, the account in II Chronicles 30 points out the changes that were instituted for the temple sacrifice of the Passover. The lambs that were killed at the temple were slain by the Levites, not by “the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel,” as in Exodus 12. (Pg 144)

Of course the domestic Passover in Egypt was a one-off occurrence. Never were the children of Israel required to experience a night of trepidation again, nor to experience a night of the Death Angels’ bloodbath to all the firstborn. 

The Levitical duties of the tribe of Levites and the Sanctuary were not instituted at the time of the Exodus. But once instituted, it was centralized. Although the tabernacle moved with the Israelites in the wilderness it was in Jerusalem in later years that God’s Holy City was chosen to place His name there. “Thou mayest not sacrifice the Passover within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee,” Deuteronomy 16:5. Hence most of the Exodus 12 requirements were a one-off situation, otherwise every Israelites would still be eating with their loins girded, sandals on their feet, staff in their hands; and they were to eat in haste, pretending to flee from a non-existing Pharaoh and his non-existing armies in an re-enactment of the Exodus.

Ezra’s account in II Chronicles 30 shows that God accepted this temple-centered Passover, although it was contrary to the ordinances that He had established, because of the prayers of Hezekiah and the repentance of the people. But God’s acceptance of this Passover does not mean that He intended this type of Passover to replace the domestic Passover. The commands for the domestic observance of the Passover, as recorded in Exodus 12, were still in effect. Consider this: If the ordinances of the Passover were not in effect at that time, there would have been no need for Hezekiah to pray for forgiveness for those who ate the Passover contrary to God’s requirements. (Pg 147)

If “it was contrary to the ordinances,” then Hezekiah wouldn’t be a righteous King. But the Scripture in II Kings 18:3 says: “And he (Hezekiah) did that which was right in the sight of the Lord.” So this is a clear case whether Fred Coulter is telling lies or the testimony from the Scriptures is false. 

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During the Exodus the command to kill the lamb in their houses (a domestic passover) were obviously a one-off situation. Later, other laws and ordinances were established, like the command to commence a holy assembly on the first and last days of Unleavened Bread, which wasn’t in the original Exodus.

Hezekiah’s prayers were for the fact that they were late for the Passover, which should be on the first month, but they celebrated it on the second month, which is contrary to the law. But the main reason was stated in II Chronicles 30:18 For a multitude of the people, even many from Ephraim, and Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the Passover otherwise than it was written. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, “The good Lord pardon every one 19 who prepareth his heart to seek God, the Lord God of his fathers, though he be not cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary.” 20 And the Lord hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the people.

We should refer back to Chapter One, this is what Fred Coulter wrote: “Anyone who twists and distorts the Scriptures is “using the law unlawfully,” as Paul said, and will end up believing false, satanic doctrines, which subvert the souls of men,” (pg 13). Yes, Fred Coulter is describing his own satanic doctrines. Has any of his sleepy sheep awakened by now? Can this be brought to Fred’s attention? 

~~13~~

II Chronicles 34:1 Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem one and thirty years. 2 And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in the ways of David his father, and declined neither to the right nor to the left. Adam Clarke comments further, “He never swerved from God and truth; he never omitted what he knew to be his duty to God.”

And the testimony from II Chronicles 34:31-33:

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 And the king (King Josiah) stood in his place, and made a covenant before the Lord to walk after the Lord, and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes, with all his heart and with all his soul, to perform the words of the covenant which are written in this book. 32 And he caused all who were present in Jerusalem and Benjamin to stand to it. And the inhabitants of Jerusalem did according to the covenant of God, the God of their fathers. 33 And Josiah took away all the abominations out of all the countries that pertained to the children of Israel, and made all who were present in Israel to serve, even to serve the Lord their God. And all his days they (the children of Israel) departed not from following the Lord, the God of their fathers.

Note that King Josiah “made a covenant before the Lord to walk after the Lord and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes, with all his heart and with all his soul.” King Josiah was a good king: “And all his days they (the children of Israel) departed not from following the Lord, the God of their fathers.”

But as usual, Fred Coulter always has something bad to lie about King Josiah:

The description of the sacrificing does not fit the ordinances that God established for the domestic observance of the Passover. There is no mention of the lambs being killed by “the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel,” as in Exodus 12. Rather, the account gives a detailed description of the slaying of the lambs at the temple by the Levites, and the sprinkling of the lamb’s blood against the altar by the priests. (Pg 153)

The sacrificing that was performed by the priests and Levites in this account was not conducted according to the ordinances that God gave to Moses for the observance of the Passover. (Pg 154)

And there were no mention of the lambs being killed by “the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel,” was because the Exodus 12 experience was a one-time incident. The Levites and priesthood were instituted in Leviticus 17 which commands that if one were to make a sacrifice, “in the camp” or “out of the camp,” the blood must be brought to the tabernacle, and the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle (verse 6)

So there was also a change in the practice of killing the lamb from their Exodus experience as the Scriptures say: And they (the Levites) killed the Passover lamb, and the priests sprinkled the blood from their hands (at the alter), and the Levites flayed them, (II Chronicles 35:11). Josiah was a good king; he “took away all the abominations out of all the countries that pertained to the children of Israel,” but Fred Coulter is lying with deceit and contempt that he was a bad one, one whose (Josiah’s) Passover “was not conducted according to the ordinances that God gave to Moses for the observance of the Passover.” But this is what the Scripture says: “And like unto him was there no king (referring to Josiah) before him, who turned to the Lord with ALL his heart and with ALL his soul and with ALL his might, according to ALL the Law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him” II Kings 23:25.

Notice the four “ALL”

(1) with ALL his heart;

(2) with ALL his soul;

(3) with ALL his might,

(4) according to ALL the Law of Moses.

Can we say any one of our endtime crop of religious leaders — wretched, blind, and naked — has any of these qualities today? Is the Scriptures lying, or is it Fred Coulter who is lying?

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As we read the account in II Chronicles 35, we find that the entire ceremony was conducted by the priests and Levites, who stood in their places to serve at the altar, offering sacrifices and carrying out all the duties that were assigned to their courses (verses 2-5). Notice Josiah’s exhortation to the Levites: “ ‘And kill the Passover, and sanctify yourselves, and prepare your brethren so that they may do according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Moses.’ And Josiah gave to the people from the flock, lambs and kids, all for the Passover offerings, for all who were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand oxen. These were from what the king owned” (verses 6-7).

This verse is significant because bullocks and oxen were never to be used for the Passover sacrifice.  God had commanded that the animals for the Passover sacrifice be selected from the sheep or the goats (Ex. 12:5).  The bullocks that Josiah gave to the people were not for the Passover sacrifice itself.  These “Passover offerings,” were to be sacrificed by the priests and Levites as burnt offerings, peace offerings and thank offerings.  The priests received “…for the Passover offerings two thousand six hundred sheep, and three hundred oxen.” And the Levites received “…for Passover offerings five thousand sheep, and five hundred oxen” (II Chron. 35:8-9). (Pg 154)

Notice the PASSOVER offering came from BOTH the flock and from the herd:

(I) King Josiah himself gave from the “lambs and kids from the flock, all for the Passover offerings for all who were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bullocks,” (II Chron. 35:7);

(II) Josiah’s princes, chief priests and officials gave “for the Passover offerings two thousand and six hundred small cattle and three hundred oxen,” (verse 8); 

(III) Conaniah and other chief Levites gave “for Passover offerings five thousand small cattle and five hundred oxen,” (verse 9).

The fact that oxens were included for the “Passover offerings” is because the Passover and Unleavened Bread were well amalgamated. And since King Josiah did “according to ALL the Law of Moses” meant that right at the beginning at the time of the original Exodus the amalgamation was instituted then. The composite feast consisted of sacrificing one lamb on the fourteenth for the Passover proper and “two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year” for each of the seven Days of Unleavened Bread.

Sacrifices from the flock and the herd are needed for the Passover and the Days of Unleavened Bread, all seven days (Numbers 28:19).

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Numbers 28:16 And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover of the LORD. 17 And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast: seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten. 18 In the first day shall be an holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work therein:

19 But ye shall offer a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt offering unto the Lord; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be unto you without blemish: 24 After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord: it shall be offered beside the continual (daily) burnt offering, and his drink offering. (Numbers 28:16-19).

The Passover is a composite feast composed of the Passover proper and the seven Days of Unleavened Bread. Once this concept is mastered, all the rest just fall into place. The Jewish Encyclopedia (initiated by Reformed Jews) digged deeper into this phenomenon by stating the concept that the two festivals as distinct was promoted by the Samaritans: “The Samaritans consider the Feast of Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread as two distinct festivals.” 

These animals from both the flock and the herd were offered as burnt offerings, peace offerings and thank offerings.  They were offered on the night of the 15th and each day during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.  The fact that they are called “Passover offerings” indicates that during this time in history, the entire Feast of Unleavened Bread began to be called “Passover.”

As the account shows, the lambs were brought to the temple to be sacrificed by the priests and the Levites, and the blood of the lambs was sprinkled against the altar in the manner that was practiced for peace offerings and thank offerings.  This was done by Josiah’s command: “So the service was prepared, and the priests stood in their place, and the Levites in their courses, according to the king’s commandment.  And they killed the Passover offerings, and the priests sprinkled the blood from their hands, and the Levites flayed them [cut them open and removed the guts].  And they removed the burnt offerings [the interior fat and genital organs] so that they might give, according to the divisions of the families of the people, to offer to the LORD as it is written in the book of Moses; and so they did to the oxen” (verses 10-12). (Pg 154)

Again once the composite feast is understood there is no problem understanding that the sacrifice and other offerings were composed of animals from the flock and from the herd, composed of thirty thousand lambs and kids as well as three thousand oxen owned by King Josiah. In fact, since King Josiah was a righteous king, his action validates the concept that Passover and Days of unleavened Bread were and have always been a composite Festival. In fact Fred Coulter admitted: “The fact that they are called “Passover offerings” indicates that during this time in history, the entire Feast of Unleavened Bread began to be called “Passover” (pg 154). To be more correct, the entire Feast of Unleavened Bread and “Passover” began as a composite Festival during the Exodus. 

The sacrificing that was performed by the priests and Levites in this account was not conducted according to the ordinances that God gave to Moses for the observance of the Passover.  The Passover ordinances that God delivered to Moses are recorded in the book of Exodus, which is the second book in the Pentateuch, or the “Book of the Law.”  These ordinances of God do not instruct the priests and Levites to sacrifice the Passover lambs and sprinkle the blood on the altar, nor to burn the fat and other parts. The phrase “as it is written in the book of Moses” is not referring to the ordinances for the Passover, but to the ordinances that God established for peace offerings, which required that the blood of the sacrificial animal be sprinkled against the altar, and the fat and certain organs be burnt on the altar (Lev. 3). (Pg 154-155)

Not so, II Chronicles 35:6 says “So kill the Passover lamb (not the peace offering) . . . that they may do according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Moses.” The central theme about King Josiah was about keeping the Passover, not about offering a peace offering. So much twistings and lyings of God’s word! The verse actually reaffirms that the blood of the sacrificial animal should be sprinkled against the altar. Josiah was a righteous king. “And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his father, and turned not aside to the right hand or to the left” II Kings 22:2. Fred Coulter has so much lying problems reading the Scriptures or is he suffering from memory lapses? Instead of sending tithes to Fred, his sleepy sheep should send him to the nearest hospital for a thorough clinical checkout.

After relating the sacrifice of the lambs and the oxen, the account describes the manner in which they were cooked: “And they roasted [Hebrew bashal] the passover with fire according to the ordinance; and the holy offerings they sod [boiled] in pots [Hebrew bashal], and in caldrons, and in pans, and carried them quickly to all the children of the people” (II Chron. 35:13, JPSA)

Bashal is never used to signify the act of roasting. The use of the word “roasted” in II Chronicles 35:13 is a blatant mistranslation of the Hebrew text. Bashal is first used in this verse to indicate that the sacrifices were cooked over fire, and then to specify that the cooking was done by boiling the flesh of the animals in pots and pans. None of these sacrifices were roasted, as God had commanded for the sacrifice of the Passover lambs (Ex. 12:9). (Pg 155)

If “they roasted [Hebrew bashal] the passover with fire according to the ordinance” then they must be doing the right thing. So why all the complainings? If they had boiled the Passover then it wasn’t according to the ordinances. The KJV translates Strong’s H1310 (bashal) in the following manner (and times): seethe (10x), boil (6x), sod (6x), bake (2x), ripe (2x), roast (2x). The KJV and most translations translate bashal as “roasted”: “And they roasted the Passover lamb with fire according to the ordinance.” The Bible says they did the roasting “according to the ordinance.” The same word bashal is used in Deuteronomy 16:7 “And thou shalt roast (H1310 bashal) and eat it in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose.” Only “A Faithful Version” by a “not-sure-what-his-level-of-Hebrew-is” author translates it as “boil.”

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Bear with me that I should dive deeper into this leather bound Faithful Version. II Chronicles 35:13 is translated as “And they boiled the Passover offerings over fire according to the law.” 

If it is “according to law” it is correct to translate it as “roast.” But what this translator means is that what they did is contrary to the law. In which case it should be translated, “And they boiled the Passover offerings over fire contrary to the law” if he insists bashal should be translated as “boil.”  Hope one of his sleepy devotees will finally wake up, do humanity a favor, and inform the author of this paradox, or at least ask for clarity how boiling is “according to law?

And the king commanded all the people, saying, “Keep the Passover unto the LORD your God, as it is written in the Book of this Covenant.” Surely there was not held such a Passover from the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel nor of the kings of Judah, but in the eighteenth year of King Josiah wherein this Passover was held to the Lord in Jerusalem. (II Kings 23:21-23). 

Rashid: such a Passover sacrifice had not been performed: So many people had not assembled at any Passover sacrifice as assembled at this one.

Clarke: – Not one on purer principles, more heartily joined in by the people present, more literally consecrated, or more religiously observed. The words do not apply to the number present, but to the manner and spirit.

This is similar to II Chronicles 35:18 “There was no passover like that” which means that this Passover distinguished from all the former Passovers because it was performed with great generosity — from Josiah, his princes and others who contributed to his people such a great number of lambs and oxens — boosting their joys and spirit that neither even David nor Solomon had done.

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A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (g)

•February 23, 2021 • 1 Comment

A Critique of Fred Coulter’s Passover (g)

Passover at the beginning or end of the 14th?

Fred R. Coulter
Christian Biblical Church of God
Post Office Box 1442
Hollister California 95024-1442

This is a Critique of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover. The main issue is whether the Passover Lamb was to be killed at the early or at the end of the fourteenth of Nisan. Quoted are Fred Coulter’s book, from an internet online PDF version. Most of his quotes are in block form, in PINK and indented so as to differentiate his from other comments. The Scriptures, in RED, must, foremost, be our primary focus and guide.

Chapters 11

While reiterating the story of Israel in Chapter 11 of The Christian Passover from the time of Joshua, the judges and then Samuel, King David and Solomon, and so on, Fred Coulter seems to avoid one critical sin of King Jeroboam. Jeroboam not only moved the Feast of Tabernacles to the eight month, he also set up altars in Bethel and Dan as houses of worship.

“Then the king [Jeroboam, now king of the northern ten tribes of Israel] took counsel, and made two calves of gold and said to them, ‘It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!’ And he set the one in Bethel, and he put the other in Dan. And this thing became a sin, for the people went to worship before the one, even to Dan. And he made houses of worship on the high places [pagan temples to Baal], and made priests of the lowest of the people, who were not the sons of Levi. And Jeroboam ordered a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like the feast that is in Judah. And he offered upon the altar. So he did in Bethel [meaning “house of God”], sacrificing to the calves that he had made. And he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made.

“And he offered unto the altar which he had made in Bethel on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, in the month which he had devised out of his own heart. And he ordained a feast for the children of Israel. And he offered upon the altar and burned incense” (I Kings 12:28-33). (The Christian Passover pg 127).

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But why didn’t Fred Coulter bold by emphasising Jerusalem as God’s designated holy place to keep the Feast? Or has he deemed it wasn’t a sin? That Jeroboam’s sin were only moving the Feast from the seventh to the eight month and worshipping the two golden calves? 

Notice Fred Coulter also didn’t emphasize the other cities — Bethel and Dan — neither cities authorised by God as a place of worship. This runs parallel with his thought that the Israelites were wrong to keep the Passover in Jerusalem, that they, like King Jeroboam, should keep a “domestic” Passover — for it is too hard to keep the Feast in Jerusalem!

Later the Samaritans came along and said Mount Gerizim is the holy place to worship. But the truth is that Jerusalem is a very important city to God, one close to His heart.

The Lord said, “In Jerusalem will I put My name,” II Kings 21:4.

The Lord said to David and to Solomon his son, “In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all tribes of Israel, will I put My name for ever,” II Kings 21:7.

“(God) have chosen Jerusalem, that My name might be there,” II Chronicles 6:6.

The Lord had said, “In Jerusalem shall My name be for ever,” II Chronicles 33:4.

And many nations shall come and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob. And He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths.” For the law shall go forth from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. Micah 4:2

At that time they shall call Jerusalem the Throne of the Lord, and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the Lord, to Jerusalem. Jeremiah 3:17

“Thus saith the Lord God: This is Jerusalem. I have set it in the midst of the nations and countries that are round about her,” Ezekiel 5:5.

“Thus saith the Lord: ‘I am returned unto Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem; and Jerusalem shall be called a city of truth, and the mountain of the Lord of hosts, the Holy Mountain.’ Zechariah 8:3

Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go out no more; and I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, which is New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from My God, and I will write upon him My new name. Revelation 3:12

And I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of Heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. Revelation 21:2

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While going into details reiterating the fall of Israel’s apostasy in Chapter 11 of Fred Coulter’s The Christian Passover, I’ll take this opportunity for better use studying into the original Exodus. Exodus 12 is a chapter where the principal subject is the Passover and its ordinances, with all other secondary issues incorporated to support the main structure.

Evidently, the Samaritans were the first to propagate that the festivals of Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were distinct and separate originally, but were combined by the wicked Jews, so they claimed. Today there are many modern “authorities” where Fred Coulter could draw support from. But let’s study right at the source — Exodus 12.

When we study Exodus 12, we’ll see that the primary focus is the Passover and its ordinances. Those secondary subjects are the death angels passing over, a memorial experience, the days to take unleavened bread, etc. The first 7 verses apply principally to the Passover sacrifice. Verses 8 to 11 say about how to eat the Passover meal. Verses 12-13 say about God’s judgement and the protection for those who obeyed. Verse 14 describes the day as a memorial and how to keep “it” i.e. the “it” is the Passover — by keeping IT as a feast, and that Passover feast is a composite Feast which includes the Feast of Unleavened Bread, verse 15. Verses 16 to 17 go into details about keeping IT with unleavened bread. Verses 18 to 20 is a reinstatement of keeping the Passover with unleavened bread. 

Image result for moses before pharol pics

Then Moses reiterates the Passover in verses 21-33, reemphasizing it by adding details as to how to keep it. In verses 34 and 39, it explains why the dough couldn’t leaven. Then in verses 35-38, it says about spoiling the Egyptians, then back to Passover in verses 43-50. Verses 40-42 and 51 emphasize the Exodus from Egypt since the prophecy God had given to Abraham 430 years before. The primary focus of Exodus 12 is the Passover; the eating of the meal with bitter herbs and unleavened bread and keeping it as a memorial are also important but secondary.

Exodus 12 (any capitalized IT is referring IT to H6453 pecach; the Passover LAMB).

1 And the Lord spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

2 “This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. — setting the background to the Passover

3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, ‘On the tenth day of this month they shall take for themselves every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a house. — preparing for the Passover

4 And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next unto his house take IT (the Passover LAMB) according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb. —  preparing for the Passover

5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take IT out from the sheep, or from the goats. — identifying the Passover

6 And ye shall keep IT up until the fourteenth day of the same month, and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill IT in the evening. — the killing of the Passover LAMB

7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it (the blood) on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses wherein they shall eat IT (the Passover LAMB). — the blood and the eating of the Passover

8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire; and with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat IT. — the Passover meal (the Targum says this meal is to be taken on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan). The main focus is still the Passover LAMB).

9 Eat not of IT raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted with fire — his head with his legs and with the viscera thereof. — how to eat the the Passover meal

10 And ye shall let nothing of IT remain until the morning, and that which remaineth of IT until the morning ye shall burn with fire. — Passover meal (the Targum says the night of the fifteenth)

11 And thus shall ye eat IT: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat IT in haste; IT is the Lord’S Passover. — Passover meal on the fifteenth

12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord. — Passover and the judgement on Egypt

13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you when I smite the land of Egypt. — Passover judgement on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan

14 “‘And this day (of the LORD’s judgement above) shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep IT a feast to the Lord throughout your generations; ye shall keep IT a feast by an ordinance for ever. — the Passover is a feast and was also an ordinance on the night of the fifteenth forever

15 Seven days (Rashid: Heb. שִׁבְעַתיָמִים, seteyne of days, i.e. a group of seven days) shall ye eat unleavened bread. Even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. — seven days of Unleavened Bread, i.e. a group of seven days

16 And in the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you. No manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you. — details of observing the seven days of unleavened bread

17 And ye shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever. — seven days of Unleavened Bread as another ordinance of Passover

18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. — the eating of unleavened bread starts at the same time as the killing of the Passover lamb, “on the fourteenth day of the month at even”

19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger or born in the land. — more details of observing the seven days of unleavened bread

20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.’” — details of observing the seven days of unleavened bread

21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said unto them, “Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the Passover.  — back to the Passover sacrifice (H6453 pecach)

22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it (the hyssop) in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out from the door of his house until the morning. — what to do with the blood of the Passover sacrifice

23 For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel and on the two side posts, the Lord will pass over (H6452 pacach) the door and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. — the passing over (H6452 pacach)

24 And ye shall observe this thing as an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. — an ordinance for the Passover sacrifice

25 And it (at a later time) shall come to pass, when ye come to the land which the Lord will give you, according as He hath promised, that ye shall keep this service. — the Passover ordinance is to be kept as a memorial

26 And it (at a later time) shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, ‘What mean ye by this service?’

27 that ye shall say, ‘IT is the sacrifice of the Lord’S Passover (H6453 pecach), who passed over (H6452 pacach) the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He smote the Egyptians and delivered our houses.’” And the people bowed their heads and worshiped. — the Passover sacrifice is to be kept as a memorial

28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron; so did they.

29 And it (at a later time) came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne, unto the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of cattle. — the judgement on the night of the fifteenth is to be kept as a memorial

30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead. — the judgement

31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night and said, “Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel! And go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. — judgement on those who were not defended by the blood of the sacrifice

See the source image

32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said; and be gone, and bless me also.”

33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, “We are all dead men.” — the judgement

34 And the people took their dough before it (the bread) was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. — the feast of unleavened bread

35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses, and they borrowed from the Egyptians jewels of silver and jewels of gold and raiment. — a process of being thrust out of Egypt

36 And the Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they despoiled the Egyptians. — a process of being thrust out

37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot who were men, besides children. — a memorial for being thrust out of Egypt

38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them, and flocks and herds, even very much cattle.

39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt; for it (the bread) was not leavened because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual. — the feast of unleavened bread

40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.

41 And it (at a later time) came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even on the selfsame day it (at a later time) came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. — a memorial

42  IT is a night to be much observed unto the Lord for bringing them out from the land of Egypt. This is that night of the Lord to be observed by all the children of Israel in their generations. — a memorial for being thrust out of Egypt for later generations

43 And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof; — the night for being thrust out of Egypt was to be a Passover ordinance

44 but every man’s servant who is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. — the Passover ordinance

45 A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof. — the Passover ordinance

46 In one house shall IT be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth any of the flesh abroad out of the house, neither shall ye break a bone thereof. — the Passover ordinance

47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep  IT. — the Passover sacrifice to be a memorial

48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee and will keep the Passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep IT; and he shall be as one that is born in the land, for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. — the Passover sacrifice to be kept

49 One law shall be for him that is homeborn and for the stranger who sojourneth among you.” — the Passover ordinance to be a memorial

See the source image

50 Thus did all the children of Israel; as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. — the Passover ordinance to be a memorial

51 And it (at a later time) came to pass the selfsame day that the Lord brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies. — a memorial for being thrust out of Egypt

Of the 51 verses in Exodus 12 (not counting verse 1):

— 29 are clearly pertaining to the Passover or its ordinances (2-14, 21-28, 43-50); 

—   5 are judgement on those not defended by the blood of the sacrifice (29-33); still related to the Passover above;

—   8 are coming out of Egypt (35-38, 40-42, 51); and 

— only 8 are about unleavened bread (15-20, 34, 39). In fact, eating unleavened bread wasn’t planned; it was thrust upon them, v 34. 

In summary, the primary focus of Exodus 12 is the Passover, which also included bringing God’s judgement on the Egyptians, allowing the children of Israel to be freed from captivity. The process involves selecting and killing the Passover lamb, spreading its blood on the lintel and doorposts, the eating of the meal with bitter herbs and unleavened bread and later, keeping IT as a memorial which are all considered as ordinances to the Passover. 

In fact, the eating of unleavened bread is just a sideshow of the Passover; at best it’s as integrated like a flower girl in a wedding, which is extremely important to the celebration but definitely secondary to the main rite, the Passover. The SACRIFICE of the LAMB is of primary importance. The LAMB is the FOCUS, all others are secondary.

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In a previous post, we went through Conservative Judaism, a spinoff of Reform Judaism. Here, we’ll dive deeper into how the Movement started, a serious subject that most seekers of the truth ignore. 

The origins of Reform Judaism lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi Abraham Geiger (1810-1874) and his associates (Samuel Holdheim, Israel Jacobson and Leopold Zunz). Since the 1970s, the Movement adopted a policy of inclusiveness and acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than “strict theoretical clarity.”

Image result for rabbi abraham geiger
Rabbi Abraham Geiger

They claim their Movement is in “a process of constant evolution” and this movement “rejects any fixed, permanent set of beliefs, laws or practices.” They stated that the old mechanisms of religious interpretation were obsolete. 

Geiger sought a more coherent ideological framework to justify innovations in the liturgy and religious practice. While Reform Judaism initially developed as lay Jews simply lost interest in the strict observances required of Orthodoxy, with many seeking shorter services, more frequent sermons, and organ music, modeled after Protestant churches. In Germany, one characteristic of their progressive revelation was the institution of a “Second Sabbath” on Sunday, modeled on the Second Passover, as most people desecrated the day of rest. 

Discrimination and persecution against Jews in Germany were rampant in the 19th and early 20th century. Work were hard to come by and such new interpretation made sense in a community struggling to survive. “If you cannot keep the Sabbath on its appointed time, you keep it on the next available day,” and so the Sabbath was shifted from Saturday to Sunday. “God would accept it,” they encouraged each other.

America was opening up to immigrants and in a new Land of the Free, the five-day workweek soon made the Sunday Sabbath redundant. But nevertheless, the Movement had already had its momentum and today the Reform Movement’s largest center today is in North America. 

Reform Judaism encourages adherents to seek their own means of engaging a new Judaism, enhancing “individualism.” Tolerance for LGBT and ordination of LGBT rabbis were also pioneered by the Movement. It started slowly then gathered speed. Intercourse between consenting adults was declared as legitimate by the Central Conference of American Rabbis in 1977, and openly gay clergy were admitted by the end of the 1980s. Same-sex marriage were sanctioned by the end of the following decade. In 2015 the Union for Reform Judaism (URJ) adopted a Resolution on the Rights of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming People, urging clergy and synagogue attendants to actively promote tolerance and inclusion of such individuals.

Today, Reform Judaism has two main objectives:

(1) Reform Jews are committed to the absolute equality of women in all areas of Jewish life. “We were the first movement to ordain women rabbis, invest women cantors, and elect women presidents of our synagogues,” they claim.

(2) Reform Jews are also committed to the full participation of gays and lesbians in synagogue life as well as society at large.

As of 2013, the Pew Research Center survey calculated Reform Judaism represented about 35% of all 5.3 million Jews in the US, making it the single most numerous Jewish religious group in the country. Based on these, the URJ claims to represent 2.2 million people. It has 846 congregations in the US and 27 in Canada, the vast majority of the 1,170 affiliated with the World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ) that are not Reconstructionist. Its rabbinical arm is the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR), with some 2,300 rabbis as members, mainly trained in Hebrew Union College. As of 2015, the URJ was led by President Rabbi Richard Jacobs, and the CCAR headed by Rabbi Denise Eger.

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Rabbi Denise Eger

The Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR), founded in 1889 by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, is the principal organization of Reform rabbis in the United States and Canada. Today, the CCAR is the largest and oldest rabbinical organization in the world. Its current president, and its first openly gay president, is Rabbi Denise Eger.

Denise Eger became the first openly gay president in 2015. The Reform Movement acknowledged that Jews and their rabbis “have long been part of the struggle for gay rights, and that includes advocacy for marriage equality.”

Rabbi Denise Eger was also the founding President of the Lesbian, Gay, & Bisexual Interfaith Clergy Association. In the summer of 2010 she was named one of the fifty most influential women rabbis.

Some Reform rabbis have other objectives in the Land of the Free. In 1888, the Jewish Publication Society (JPS), originally known as the Jewish Publication Society of America (JPSA), was founded  by reform Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf among others in Philadelphia. It claimed to be the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. As the years rolled on, JPS became well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh. As JPS moved into the 20th, its popularity grew rapidly. After years of meetings, deliberations and revisions, the entire translation of the Bible was finally completed in 1917.

Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf

In 1985, the newly translated three parts of the Bible (the Torah, Prophets, and Writings) were compiled into what is now known as the JPS Tanakh (or NJPS, New JPS translation, to distinguish it from the OJPS, or Old JPS translation of 1917). Hence the Jewish Publication Society (JPS) is credited as both Publisher of the TANAKH 1917 and 1985 editions.

The JPS followed a central tenet, to adopt “a policy of inclusiveness and acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than strict theoretical clarity.” It is strongly identified with progressive political and social agendas, mainly under the traditional Jewish rubric Tikkun Olam, or “Repairing of the World”. In their endeavour to avoid the “bondage of Judaism,” a new policy of inclusiveness and acceptance was established. And a new Tikkun Olam became a central motto of Reform Judaism — to “express wholeheartedly the idea of universal equality, freedom, and peace for all,” and to “forge a common bond in true harmony to banish all hatred and bigotry.”

The results:

Exodus 12:6 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats; 6 and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk.

The 1988 edition (hard copy) says “at twilight,” published by the New JPS Translation. And as a result it has overwhelming influence in every major English translation:

NKJV: Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight. The NAS, NIV, NKJV and NRSV all render this similarly as “twilight.” “The Message Bible” produced by Eugene Peterson, and CJB by David Stern translates this as “dusk” like the JPS. *

And besides Fred Coulter there are others yielding great influence among the CoG Communities:

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John W. Ritenbaugh

And John W. Ritenbaugh wrote: “Ba erev means sunset. It is very specific. It includes no time before sunset. It is a period that begins whenever the edge of the sun hits the edge of the horizon. If you stood and watched how long ba erev takes, it takes about three to five minutes of time. It is very specific” (Passover, Part 3).

Frank Nelte
Frank W. Nelte

After discussing the meaning of Exodus 12:6, Frank W. Nelte of South Africa, an ex-WCG minister, states: “The JPS translation of “between the two evenings” is AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT that dusk is bounded by “the two evening.” Frank emphasized further, “Now “dusk” is NEVER before sunset. Dusk is ALWAYS AFTER SUNSET!  It follows that dusk can ONLY refer to a period of time at the very start of a day. Therefore this instruction to kill the Passover “at dusk” could only be at the very start of the 14th day. The word “dusk” does not allow for any other possibility.”(The Meaning of ‘Between the two Evenings’)

As of this writing, a new “gender-sensitive version of the Jewish Publication Society (JPS) translation” is on promotion in their endeavour to adapt to the needs of the day. It’s a “largely gender-neutral God language” and a completely fresh translation of the Torah. This new translation will prove exceedingly useful not only for clergy and synagogue professionals, but also for anyone interested in Biblical learning, so they claimed.

The next challenge for Fred R. Coulter, John W. Ritenbaugh and Frank W. Nelte is to continue cutting off from the “bondage of Judaism” to attain their next level of spirituality.

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Thucydides Trap In The South China Sea

•February 18, 2021 • Leave a Comment

“China is a sleeping giant . . . when she wakes up, it will shake the world” Napoleon.

Pepe Escobar for Unz Review July 30, 2020

Image result for Ronald Reagan and Nimitz Carrier Strike groupsWhen the Ronald Reagan and Nimitz carrier strike groups recently engaged in “operations” in the South China Sea, it did not escape to many a cynic that the US Pacific Fleet was doing its best to turn the infantile Thucydides Trap theory into a self-fulfilling prophecy.

The pro forma official spin, via Rear Adm. Jim Kirk, commander of the Nimitz, is that the ops were conducted to “reinforce our commitment to a free and open Indo-Pacific, a rules-based international order, and to our allies and partners.”

Nobody pays attention to these clichés, because the real message was delivered by a CIA operative posing as diplomat, Secretary of State Mike “We Lie, We Cheat, We Steal” Pompeo: “The PRC has no legal grounds to unilaterally impose its will on the region”, in a reference to the Nine-Dash Line. For the State Dept., Beijing deploys nothing but “gangster tactics” in the South China Sea.China launch ballistic missiles into South China Sea in 'warning to US'  after 'unprecedented' war games near Taiwan

Once again, nobody paid attention, because the actual facts on the sea are stark. Anything that moves in the South China Sea – China’s crucial maritime trade artery – is at the mercy of the PLA, which decides if and when to deploy their deadly DF-21D and DF-26 “carrier killer” missiles. There’s absolutely no way the US Pacific Fleet can win a shooting war in the South China Sea.

But the US could run into the Thucydides Trap in the South China Sea.

A crucial Chinese report, unavailable and not referred to by Western media, and translated by Hong Kong-based analyst Thomas Wing Polin, is essential to understand the context.

See the source imageThe report refers to US Growler electronic warplanes rendered totally out of control by electronic jamming devices positioned on islands and reefs in the South China Sea.

According to the report:

“[A]fter the accident, the United States negotiated with China, demanding that China dismantle the electronic equipment immediately, but it was rejected. These electronic devices are an important part of China’s maritime defense and are not offensive weapons. Therefore, the US military’s request for dismantling is unreasonable.”

It gets better:

“On the same day, former commander Scott Swift of the US Pacific Fleet finally acknowledged that the US military had lost the best time to control the South China Sea. He believes that China has deployed a large number of Hongqi 9 air defense missiles, H-6K bombers, and electronic jamming systems on islands and reefs. The defense can be said to be solid. If US fighter jets rush into the South China Sea, they are likely to encounter their ‘Waterloo.’”

See the source image

The bottom line is that the systems – including electronic jamming – deployed by the PLA on islands and reefs in the South China Sea, covering more than half of the total surface, are considered by Beijing to be part of the national defense system.

I have previously detailed what Admiral Philip Davidson, when he was still a nominee to lead the US Pacific Command (PACOM), told the US Senate. Here are his Top Three conclusions:

See the source image

Napoleon Met his End at Waterloo

1) “China is pursuing advanced capabilities (e.g., hypersonic missiles) which the United States has no current defense against. As China pursues these advanced weapons systems, US forces across the Indo-Pacific will be placed increasingly at risk.”

2) “China is undermining the rules-based international order.”

3) “China is now capable of controlling the South China Sea in all scenarios short of war with the United States.”

Implied in all of the above is the “secret” of the Indo-Pacific strategy: at best a containment exercise, as China continues to solidify the Maritime Silk Road linking the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean.

Unz Review

The PLA Rocket Force, says one report, has already fielded an estimated 1,500 short-range ballistic missiles, 450 medium-range missiles, 160 intermediate-range missiles and hundreds of long-range ground-launched cruise missiles [all along the Western Pacific].

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China authorises coast guard to fire on foreign vessels if needed

Excerpts from Yahoo News report by Yew Lun Tian Fri, January 22, 2021

BEIJING (Reuters) – China passed a law on Friday that for the first time explicitly allows its coast guard to fire on foreign vessels, a move that could make the contested waters around China more choppy.

China has maritime sovereignty disputes with Japan in the East China Sea and with several Southeast Asian countries in the South China Sea. It has sent its coast guard to chase away fishing vessels from other countries, sometimes resulting in the sinking of these vessels.

Pentagon says China missile test in South China Sea 'disturbing' - Nikkei  Asia

According to draft wording in the bill published earlier, the coast guard is allowed to use “all necessary means” to stop or prevent threats from foreign vessels.

The bill allows coast guard personnel to demolish other countries’ structures built on Chinese-claimed reefs and to board and inspect foreign vessels in waters claimed by China.

The bill also empowers the coastguard to create temporary exclusion zones “as needed” to stop other vessels and personnel from entering.  This signals that China is preparing to up the stakes over what it considers its key national interests and controlling them is a strategic imperative if China wishes to displace the US as the dominant military power in the Western Pacific.

Spratly islands map

“The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle” Psalm 78:9

As at February 17, 2021