This presentation, in detail with all the events leading up to Jesus’ Crucifixion, is to prove that (a) that night Jesus took the Last Supper with His disciples, was the night on the thirteenth of Nisan. 

It is IMPOSSIBLE to be on the fourteenth as the High Priests (Annas and Caiapas), chief priests and other Sadducees were also waiting to partake their passover, which would be on the night of the Fourteenth. Even these Sadducees refused to enter the Preatorium lest they be defiled and couldn’t take their passover.

There are other reasons for this IMPOSSIBILITY but they are presented along with the events, with timing — hour and day — conveyed in this presentation.

Second, that night when Jesus and His disciple sat down and ate, the Scriptures say it was a supper. Yes, just a supper!

Also, and of greater importance, if that night had been the Passover night, Jesus would have infringed one of the ordinances — that the bones should be burned in the morning (boqer), Exodus 12:10, 22; Numbers 9:12.

“They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.” Numbers 9:12.

Beside, there were the missing 18 hours that most students of the Gospels missed.

And finally, this presentation is also to show (b) that the three Synoptic Gospels didn’t contradict John’s testimony that Jesus died on the eve of the Passover. In fact, when their testimonies are placed in proper perspective, they supplement each other.

Below are the comprehensive evidence, right from the Scriptures:

Jesus’ Last Hours 

(The Hours Usage are Jewish Reckoning; Usages in Roman Reckoning are AM (Ante Meridiem “before noon”) and PM (Post Meridiem “after noon”). 

Prelude to the Passover

Matthew 26:1 (KJ21) And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, He said unto His disciples,

2 “Ye know that after two days is the Feast of the Passover, and the Son of Man is betrayed to be crucified.”

3 Then the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people assembled together unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,

4 and consulted that they might take Jesus by stealth and kill Him.

5 But they said, “Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.”

Jesus anointed in Bethany

Matthew 26:6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper,

7 there came unto Him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on His head as He sat at meat.

8 But when His disciples saw it, they were indignant, saying, “To what purpose is this waste?

9 For this ointment might have been sold for much and given to the poor.”

10 When Jesus perceived this, He said unto them, “Why trouble ye the woman? For she hath wrought a good work upon Me.

11 For ye have the poor always with you, but Me ye have not always.

12 For in that she hath poured this ointment on My body, she did it for My burial.

13 Verily I say unto you, wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, which this woman hath done, be told as a memorial of her.”

Judas promised 30 pieces of silver

Matthew 26:14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests

15 and said unto them, “What will ye give me if I will deliver Him unto you?” And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.

16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray Him.

Disciples prepared for Passover

Matthew 26:17 Now on the first day (G4413 protos) of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto Him, “Where wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee to eat the Passover?”

— The natural reading of this verse seems to suggest the disciples asked Jesus where to keep the Passover when Passover was already over. But G4413 protos could be translated as ‘a time before’ as in John 1:15 John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before G4413 me.

Thus Matthew 26:17 could be translated as: “Now before the Days of Unleavened Bread have arrived, the disciples came to Jesus, asking, Where shall we prepare for thee to eat the Passover?” 

 — the intention to eat the Passover was there, but the actual eating was yet to happen.  

18 And He said, “Go into the city to a certain man and say unto him, ‘The Master saith, “My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at thy house with My disciples.”’”

19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them, and they made ready the Passover.

The Last Supper — 13th Nisan, Monday, Even (6:00 PM)

Luke 22:14 And when the hour had come, He sat down and the twelve apostles with Him.

15 And He said unto them, “With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer” 

If that night was the Passover night, Jesus would had broken one of the ordinances according to Numbers 9:12: “They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.”

They left early and if Jesus had broken any of the ordinances, the destiny of all humanity would have been flushed down the toilet.

Second, if they had killed the lamb at sunset at 6 PM as the CoG Communities believe, it would be a miracle if they could have the lamb roasted and meal ready before 10 PM, but for this exercise, let’s start at 6 PM when supper was served, because that night could only be the thirteenth.

Taking into consideration a very unusual word for “desire” is epithumia in the Greek, which is something forbidden, perhaps this verse should be translated as: “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; but I’m saying to you now, I am forbidden and denied this privilege, and I will no longer eat with you until we’re all in the kingdom of God.” — for a detailed exegesis see endnote.

16 for I say unto you, I will not anymore eat thereof until it be fulfilled in the Kingdom of God.” John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them unto the end.

John 13:2 And supper (G1173) being ended, and the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray Him other translations say “during supper.” It was just as a supper as in John 12:2 where Martha and Mary made Him a supper (G1173) in Bethany after raising Lazarus. If that night was a passover why didn’t the Gospel writers say so to differentiate it from other ordinary supper?

3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands and that He had come from God and was going to God,

Foot washing (only recorded by John) — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (7:30 PM)

John 13:4 rose from supper (G1173) and laid aside His garments, and took a towel and girded Himself.

5 After that He poured water into a basin, and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel wherewith He was girded.

Among Eastern people it was customary, before eating, to wash the feet; and to do this, or to bring water for it, was one of the rites of hospitality. See Genesis 18:4; Judges 19:21. The reasons for this were, that they wore “sandals,” which covered only the bottom of the feet, and that when they ate they reclined on couches or sofas. It became therefore necessary that the feet should be washed before food. But here, none of His disciples was willing to play host and doing the act of hospitality, hence Jesus volunteered after supper.

6 Then came He to Simon Peter, and Peter said unto Him, “Lord, dost Thou wash my feet?”

7 Jesus answered and said unto him, “What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter.”

8 Peter said unto Him, “Thou shalt never wash my feet.” Jesus answered him, “If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me.”

9 Simon Peter said unto Him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.”

See the source image

10 Jesus said to him, “He that is washed needeth not but to wash his feet, but is clean every whit. And ye are clean, but not all.”

11 (For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, “Ye are not all clean.”)

12 So after He had washed their feet and had taken His garments and had sat down again, He said unto them, “Know ye what I have done to you?

13 Ye call Me Master and Lord; and ye say well, for so I am.

14 If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another’s feet.

15 For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.

16 Verily, verily I say unto you, the servant is not greater than his lord, neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.

17 If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.

Judas left to betray Jesus — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (8:00 PM)

John 13:18 “I speak not of you all. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He that eateth bread with Me hath lifted up his heel against Me.’

19 Now I tell you before it comes that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am He.

20 Verily, verily I say unto you, he that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth Me; and he that receiveth Me, receiveth Him that sent Me.”

21 When Jesus had thus said, He was troubled in spirit, and testified and said, “Verily, verily I say unto you that one of you shall betray Me.”

22 Then the disciples looked at one another, not knowing of whom He spoke.

23 Now there was leaning on Jesus’ bosom, one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved.

24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom He spoke.

25 He then, leaning on Jesus’ breast, said unto Him, “Lord, who is it?”

26 Jesus answered, “He it is to whom I shall give a sop when I have dipped it.” And when He had dipped the sop, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. this was not the Passover sop, which was dipped into a sauce made of various things, called by the Jews for this was not the “paschal” supper, but a common supper, two days before the feast of the Passover; but this sop, or rather crust of bread (G740 artos), which when dipped into a sop, which Christ dipped his hand into, and took to Judas Iscariot, was evidently a piece from a common bread (G740 artos).

27 And after the sop, Satan entered into him. Then Jesus said unto him, “What thou doest, do quickly.”

28 Now no man at the table knew with what intent He spoke this unto him.

29 For some of them thought, because Judas had the money bag, that Jesus had said unto him, “Buy those things that we have need of for the feast,” or that he should give something to the poor. — some of the other disciples thought Judas was taking the money to buy for the feast. This indicates that buying and selling were still going on, which demonstrates that Passover hadn’t arrived yet otherwise everyone would be keeping Passover at home and none would be engaging in commercial activities. Second, if that night were the Passover, the other disciples would be wondering why Judas didn’t wait until morning (boqer) before venturing out of the house (Ex 12:22; Num 9:12); but none did.

30 Judas then, having received the sop, went immediately out. And it was night.

31 Therefore when he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him.

32 If God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him.

Wine and unleavened bread — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (8:00 PM)

Luke 22:17 And He took the cup, and gave thanks and said, “Take this, and divide it among yourselves;

18 for I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the Kingdom of God shall come.”

19 And He took bread (G740 artos), and gave thanks and broke it and gave it unto them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you. This do in remembrance of Me.” Jesus was using leavened bread (Greek=“artos”) throughout this last supper (recorded in all the Gospel accounts and 1 Corinthians 10-12). Had this been Passover, Jesus would have had to use unleavened bread (Greek=“azimos”) which was commanded in Exodus 12:8.

20 Likewise also He took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new testament in My blood, which is shed for you.

21 But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth Me is with Me on the table.

22 And truly the Son of Man goeth as it was determined; but woe unto that man by whom He is betrayed!”

23 And they began to inquire among themselves which of them it was that should do this thing.

24 And there was also a contention among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.

25 And He said unto them, “The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and they that exercise authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’

26 But ye shall not be so; but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.

27 For who is greater, he that sitteth at meat or he that serveth? Is it not he that sitteth at meat? But I am among you as He that serveth.

28 “Ye are they that have continued with Me in My temptations.

29 And I appoint unto you a Kingdom, as My Father hath appointed unto Me,

30 that ye may eat and drink at My table in My Kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

A new commandment  13th Nisan, Monday Night (9:00 PM)

John 13:33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek Me; and as I said unto the Jews, ‘Whither I go ye cannot come,’ so now say I to you.

34 A new commandment I give unto you: that ye love one another, as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.

35 By this shall all men know that ye are My disciples: if ye have love one for another.”

Prophecy about Peter denying Christ 

Luke 22:31 And the Lord said, “Simon, Simon! Behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat.

32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not; and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.”

33 And Peter said unto Him, “Lord, I am ready to go with Thee, both into prison and to death.”

34 And He said, “I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day before thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest Me.”

Christ’s instruction to the disciples  13th Nisan, Monday Night (9:00 PM)

Luke 22:35 And He said unto them, “When I sent you without purse and pack and shoes, lacked ye anything?” And they said, “Nothing.”

36 Then said He unto them, “But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it and likewise his pack; and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one.

37 For I say unto you that this that is written must yet be accomplished in Me: ‘And He was reckoned among the transgressors.’ For the things concerning Me have an end.”

38 And they said, “Lord, behold, here are two swords.” And He said unto them, “It is enough.” 

Thomas Coke Commentary on Luke 22:38. Lord, behold, here are two swords.— Our Lord’s disciples, mistaking his meaning about the swords, replied, they had two: the reason why they had any at all, probably, was, that they might defend themselves against robbers in their journey from Galilee and Perea, and from the beasts of prey which in those parts were very frequent and dangerous in the night time: it afterwards appears, that one of these swords was Peter’s. See John 18:10. Our Lord replies to the disciples, “It is enough for weapons of this sort; my chief intent is, to direct you to another kind of defence; even that which arises from piety and faith.” This is strongly intimated by our Lord’s saying that two swords were sufficient; which, it is evident, they could not have been for so many men, had our Lord meant what he said in a literal sense.

They sang a hymn and left 13th Nisan, Monday Night (9:30 PM)

Matthew 26:30 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out unto the Mount of Olives.

One of the Passover ordinances would be broken if that night was a Passover:

“And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning (boqer), and that which remaineth of it [food remains] until the morning ye shall burn with fire.” Exodus 12:10

“They shall leave none of it [food remains] unto the morning (boqer), nor break any bone of it. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it” Numbers 9:12.

Jesus and His disciples left for the Garden of Gethsemane and according to most timeline it was around 9:00 PM. Further, they left without burning any food remains or the bones, infringing one of the Passover ordinances according to Exodus 12:10, 22; Numbers 9:12. If that night was a Passover night, all our hopes and dreams about eternal life would be flushed down the toilet. OBVIOUSLY IT WASN’T A PASSOVER NIGHT. THANK GOD!

More discourse 13th Nisan, Monday Night (9:30 PM)

John 14:1 “Let not your heart be troubled. Ye believe in God; believe also in Me.

2 In My Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.

3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you unto Myself, that where I am, there ye may be also.

4 And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know.”

5 Thomas said unto Him, “Lord, we know not whither Thou goest; and how can we know the way?”

6 Jesus said unto him, “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no man cometh unto the Father, but by Me.

7 If ye had known Me, ye should have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye know Him, and have seen Him.”

8 Philip said unto Him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it sufficeth us.”

9 Jesus said unto him, “Have I been so long a time with you, and yet hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, ‘Show us the Father’?

10 Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak unto you I speak not of Myself; but the Father that dwelleth in Me, He doeth the works.

11 Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me; or else believe Me for the very works’ sake.

12 Verily, verily I say unto you, he that believeth in Me, the works that I do he shall do also; and greater works than these shall he do, because I go unto My Father.

13 And whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.

14 If ye shall ask anything in My name, I will do it.

15 “If ye love Me, keep My commandments.

16 And I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you forever”

17 even the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him. But ye know Him, for He dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

18 “I will not leave you comfortless; I will come to you.

19 Yet a little while and the world seeth Me no more, but ye see Me. Because I live, ye shall live also.

20 At that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.

21 He that hath My commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me; and he that loveth Me shall be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will manifest Myself to him.”

22 Judas (not Iscariot) said unto Him, “Lord, how is it that Thou wilt manifest Thyself unto us, and not unto the world?”

23 Jesus answered and said unto him, “If a man love Me, he will keep My words; and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him and make Our abode with him.

24 He that loveth Me not, keepeth not My sayings. And the Word which you hear is not Mine, but the Father’s who sent Me.

25 “These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you.

26 But the Comforter, who is the Holy Ghost whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

27 “Peace I leave with you; My peace I give unto you, not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.

28 Ye have heard how I said unto you, ‘I go away and come again unto you.’ If ye loved Me, ye would rejoice because I said, ‘I go unto the Father,’ for My Father is greater than I.

29 And now I have told you before it comes to pass, that when it is come to pass, ye might believe.

30 “Hereafter I will not talk much with you, for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in Me.

31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, as the Father gave Me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.

More discourse — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (9:30 PM)

John 15:1 “I am the true vine, and My Father is the husbandman.

2 Every branch in Me that beareth not fruit He taketh away; and every branch that beareth fruit, He purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

3 Now ye are clean through the Word which I have spoken unto you.

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4 “Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abide in the vine, no more can ye, unless ye abide in Me.

5 “I am the vine, ye are the branches. He that abideth in Me and I in Him, the same bringeth forth much fruit, for without Me ye can do nothing.

6 If a man abides not in Me, he is cast forth as a branch and is withered; and men gather them and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

7 If ye abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

8 Herein is My Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be My disciples.

9 “As the Father hath loved Me, so have I loved you. Continue ye in My love.

10 If ye keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love, even as I have kept My Father’s commandments, and abide in His love.

11 These things have I spoken unto you, that My joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.

12 “This is My commandment: that ye love one another, as I have loved you.

13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

14 Ye are My friends if ye do whatsoever I command you.

15 Henceforth I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth; but I have called you friends, for all things that I have heard of My Father, I have made known unto you.

16 Ye have not chosen Me, but I have chosen you and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit and that your fruit should remain, that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in My name, He may give it to you.

17 These things I command you, that ye love one another.

18 “If the world hates you, ye know that it hated Me before it hated you.

19 If ye were of the world, the world would love his own; but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.

20 Remember the word that I said unto you: ‘The servant is not greater than his lord.’ If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept My saying, they will keep yours also.

21 But all these things will they do unto you for My name’s sake, because they know not Him that sent Me.

22 If I had not come and spoken unto them, they would not have sin, but now they have no cloak for their sin.

23 He that hateth Me hateth My Father also.

24 If I had not done among them the works which no other man did, they would not have had sin; but now they have both seen and hated both Me and My Father.

25 But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law: ‘They hated Me without a cause.’

26 “But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth who proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me.

27 And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning.

More discourse — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (9:30 PM)

John 16:1 “These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not lose faith.

2 They shall put you out of the synagogues; yea, the time cometh that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.

3 And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor Me.

4 But these things have I told you, that when the time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them. “And these things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.

5 But now I go My way to Him that sent Me, and none of you asketh Me, ‘Whither goest Thou?’

6 But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.

7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is expedient for you that I go away, for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send Him unto you.

8 And when He is come, He will reprove the world concerning sin, and concerning righteousness, and concerning judgment:

9 concerning sin, because they believe not in Me;

10 concerning righteousness, because I go to My Father and ye see Me no more;

11 concerning judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.

12 “I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.

13 However when He, the Spirit of Truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth; for He shall not speak from Himself, but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak; and He will show you things to come.

14 He shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine, and shall show it unto you.

15 All things that the Father hath are Mine; therefore I said that He shall take of Mine, and shall show it unto you.

16 A little while, and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while, and ye shall see Me, because I go to the Father.”

17 Then said some of His disciples among themselves, “What is this that He saith unto us, ‘A little while, and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while, and ye shall see Me,’ and, ‘because I go to the Father’?”

18 They said therefore, “What is this that He saith, ‘A little while’? We cannot tell what He saith.”

19 Now Jesus knew that they were desirous of asking Him, and said unto them, “Do ye inquire among yourselves of what I said, ‘A little while, and ye shall not see Me; and again a little while, and ye shall see Me’?

20 Verily, verily I say unto you that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice; and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy.

21 A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come; but as soon as she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for the joy that a man is born into the world. 

22 And ye now therefore have sorrow; but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you.

23 And in that day ye shall ask Me nothing. Verily, verily I say unto you, whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in My name, He will give it to you.

24 Hitherto have ye asked nothing in My name. Ask and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full.

25 “These things have I spoken unto you in proverbs; but the time cometh when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall show you plainly of the Father.

26 In that day ye shall ask in My name, and I say not unto you that I will pray the Father for you;

27 for the Father Himself loveth you, because ye have loved Me and have believed that I came out from God.

28 I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world. Again, I leave the world and go to the Father.”

29 His disciples said unto Him, “Lo, now speakest Thou plainly and speakest no proverb.

30 Now are we sure that Thou knowest all things and needest not that any man should ask Thee. By this we believe that Thou camest forth from God.”

31 Jesus answered them, “Do ye now believe?

32 Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave Me alone. And yet I am not alone, because the Father is with Me.

33 These things I have spoken unto you, that in Me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer: I have overcome the world.”

In Gethsemene to pray — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (10:00 PM)

Luke 22:39 And He came out and went, as He was wont, to the Mount of Olives; and His disciples also followed Him.

Jesus’ ‘inner circle’

Mark 14:33 And He took with Him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed and very heavy of heart. — These three disciples were there during Christ’s time of prayers and distress. They were Christ’s inner circle.

34 And He said unto them, “My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death; tarry ye here, and watch.”

Jesus prayed for 3 hours — 13th Nisan, Monday Night (10:00 PM)

Matthew 26:39 And He went a little farther, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt.”

40 And He came unto the disciples and found them asleep, and said unto Peter, “What, could ye not watch with Me one hour?

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41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

42 He went away again the second time and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if this cup may not pass away from Me, unless I drink it, Thy will be done.”

43 And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy.

44 And He left them and went away again, and prayed a third time, saying the same words.

Up to this point, Jesus still hoped and prayed that this cup could be taken away from Him, so He could take the Passover with His disciples. But it wasn’t granted.

Second, He sweated profusely, His blood falling to the ground, not so much as death awaited Him, but the process of tortues under the Roman soldiers that most people would fear of. Surely He knew this in advance.  

And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly, and His sweat was, as it were, great drops of blood falling down to the ground (Luke 22:44).

Then He said unto them, “My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death; tarry ye here and watch with Me.” And He went a little farther, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt” (Matthew 26:38-39). Christ wanted two things that night; (a) to partake the upcoming Passover; (b) avoiding this cup of suffering. Here, for three hours, He was still pleading, but both requests were denied.

The Lord’s prayer — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Early Morning (1:00 AM)

John 17:1 These words spoke Jesus and lifted up His eyes to Heaven and said, “Father, the hour is come. Glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee,

2 as Thou hast given Him power over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as Thou hast given Him.

3 And this is life eternal: that they might know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent.

4 I have glorified Thee on the earth; I have finished the work which Thou gavest Me to do.

5 And now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own Self with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was.

6 “I have manifested Thy name unto the men whom Thou gavest Me out of the world. Thine they were, and Thou gavest them to Me, and they have kept Thy Word.

7 Now they have known that all things whatsoever Thou hast given Me are of Thee.

8 For I have given unto them the Words which Thou gavest Me; and they have received them and have known surely that I came out from Thee, and they have believed that Thou didst send Me.

9 I pray for them; I pray not for the world, but for them whom Thou hast given Me, for they are Thine.

10 And all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine, and I am glorified in them.

11 And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to Thee. Holy Father, keep through Thine own name those whom Thou hast given Me, that they may be one, as We are.

12 While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Thy name. Those that Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.

13 “And now come I to Thee, and these things I speak in the world, that they might have My joy fulfilled in themselves.

14 I have given them Thy Word, and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

15 I pray not that Thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that Thou shouldest keep them from the evil.

16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

17 Sanctify them through Thy truth: Thy Word is truth.

18 As Thou hast sent Me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.

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19 And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth.

20 “Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also who shall believe in Me through their word,

21 that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that Thou hast sent Me.

22 And the glory which Thou gavest Me I have given them, that they may be one, even as We are one:

23 I in them and Thou in Me, that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that Thou hast sent Me and hast loved them, as Thou hast loved Me.

24 “Father, I will that they also, whom Thou hast given Me, be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which Thou hast given Me; for Thou loved Me before the foundation of the world.

25 “O righteous Father, the world hath not known Thee, but I have known Thee, and these have known that Thou hast sent Me.

26 And I have declared unto them Thy name, and will declare it, that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them.”

Judas’s betrayal — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Early Morning (1:30 AM)

John 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where was a garden into which He entered with His disciples.

2 And Judas also, who betrayed Him, knew the place, for Jesus often resorted thither with His disciples.

3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

The high priests, Annas and Caiaphas, were known to be Sadducees and according to their beliefs they would be having their passover that night, if that night was on the fourteenth. They would be roasting their lambs for 4 to 5 hours and eating them and it would be extremely unlikely they had planned anything else on such a revered night.

Later these same high priests were said to refuse entering the praetorium, lest they be defiled to partake their passover, signifying that night could only be the thirteenth!

4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon Him, went forth and said unto them, “Whom seek ye?”

5 They answered Him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said unto them, “I am He.” And Judas also, who betrayed Him, stood with them.

6 As soon then as He had said unto them, “I am He,” they went backward and fell to the ground.

7 Then He asked them again, “Whom seek ye?” And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.”

8 Jesus answered, “I have told you that I am He. If therefore ye seek Me, let these go their way,”

9 that the saying might be fulfilled which He spoke, “Of those that Thou gavest Me, have I lost none.”

Healing of High Priest servant’s ear — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Early Morning (2:00 AM)

John 18:10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and smote the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.

11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, “Put up thy sword into the sheath. The cup which My Father hath given Me, shall I not drink it?” — Peter was there during Christ’s time of distress

12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus and bound Him,

Disciples deserted Him — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Early Morning (2:00 AM)

Mark 14:50 And they all forsook Him and fled.

51 And there followed Him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him. — this disciple during Christ’s trial was probably James. 

Acts 12:2 He (Governor Herod) killed James the brother of John with the sword,

52 And he left the linen cloth and fled from them naked.

They led Him to Annas — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Early Morning (2.30 AM)

John 18:13 and led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was the high priest that same year.

14 Now it was Caiaphas who gave counsel to the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

Peter followed near a fire — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (3:00 AM)

John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. That disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. — John, shy to identify himself, was another disciple during Christ’s time of distress. 

16 But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple, who was known unto the high priest, went out and spoke unto her who kept the door, and brought in Peter.

17 Then the damsel who kept the door said unto Peter, “Art not thou also one of this man’s disciples?” He said, “I am not.”

18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals, for it was cold and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

Before Annas and Caiaphas — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (4:00 AM)

John 18:19 The high priest (identified as Annas) then asked Jesus about His disciples and about His doctrine. — Annas was trying to fish out something so as to accuse Jesus of treason and to put Him to death.

20 Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue and in the temple whither the Jews always resort, and in secret have I said nothing.

21 Why askest thou Me? Ask them that heard Me what I have said unto them. Behold, they know what I said.”

22 And when He had thus spoken, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, “Answerest thou the high priest so?”

23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why smitest thou Me?”

24 Now Annas had sent Him bound unto Caiaphas, the high priest.

Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas by marriage to his daughter. Annas and Caiaphas were Sadducees or their close allies, the Boethusiasns. And if that night was on the fourteenth, they would be having their Sadducaic passover. Their minds would be on killing, cleaning and roasting the lamb after sunset, and it would be close to insanity to think that they had planned to be troubled on something else on such an auspicious night.

Second, after Jesus’ miracle of raising Lazarus from the grave, the chief priests (John 12:10) who would certainly include Caiaphas and other Sadducees advocated putting Jesus to death. This act of raising Lazarus from death is anathema to Sadducaic teaching, because Sadducees don’t believe in any resurrection (Acts 4:1-6; 23:8).

The Sanhedrin — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (5:00 AM)

Matthew 26:59 Now the chief priests and elders and all the council sought false witness against Jesus to put Him to death,

Mark 14:55 And the chief priests and all of the council (i.e. the entire Sanhedrin members alone would be 70 or 72, not including elders and false witnesses) sought for witnesses against Jesus to put Him to death, and found none. — It would probably take one or two hours to assemble them together, even if they all live nearby. Those days they didn’t have telephones, only runners.

Second, if that night were the fourteenth, it would be a passover night for the Sadducees, who made up a large portion of the Sanhedrin at that time. It would be inconceivable to believe that many runners could be found during the early morning hours and dared to trouble all the Sadducaic members of the Sanhedrin in their sleep. This together with the comment above on Annas and Caiaphas are strong evidence to believe that that night wasn’t possible to be on the fourteenth.

60 but found none. Yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found none. At the last came two false witnesses,

61 and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.’”

62 And the high priest (Caiaphas, Matt 28:57) arose and said unto Him, “Answerest thou nothing? What is it which these witnesses say against thee?”

Earlier a Saddusaic high priest Caiaphas already wanted Jesus dead for raising Lazarus (for Sadducees didn’t believe in any resurrection Acts 23:8):
John 11:49 And one of them named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, “Ye know nothing at all,
50 nor consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.”
51 And he spoke this not of himself, but, being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;
52 and not for that nation only, but that also He should gather together in one the children of God who were scattered abroad.
53 So from that day forth, they took counsel together to put Him to death.

63 But Jesus held His peace. And the high priest answered and said unto Him, “I adjure thee by the living God that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.”

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Jesus before Caiaphas, chief priests, elders and the full Sandhedrin

64 Jesus said unto him, “Thou hast said; nevertheless I say unto you, hereafter shall ye see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.”

65 Then the high priest rented his clothes, saying, “He hath spoken blasphemy! What further need have we of witnesses? Behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy!

66 What do you think?” They answered and said, “He is deserving of death!”

67 Then they spit in His face and buffeted Him, and others smote Him with the palms of their hands,

68 saying, “Prophesy unto us, thou Christ! Who is he that smote thee?”

Peter denied Jesus three times — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (5:00 AM)

Matthew 26:69 Now Peter sat outside in the palace, and a damsel came unto him, saying, “Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee.”

70 But he denied it before them all, saying, “I know not what thou sayest.”

71 And when he had gone out onto the porch, another maid saw him and said unto those who were there, “This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth.”

72 And again he denied with an oath, “I do not know the man!”

73 And after a while came unto him those who stood by, and said to Peter, “Surely thou also art one of them, for thy speech betrayeth thee.”

74 Then he began to curse and to swear, saying, “I know not the man!” And immediately the cock crowed.

75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, when He said unto him, “Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny Me thrice.”

The best scientific evidence says that normally endogenous cycles stimulate a cock to crow in response to incremental changes in light intensity. The best bet seems to be from around 5 AM to 6 AM.

Luke 22:62 And Peter went out and wept bitterly.

63 And the men who held Jesus mocked Him and smote Him.

64 And when they had blindfolded Him, they struck Him on the face and asked Him, saying, “Prophesy! Who is it that smote thee?”

65 And many other things they spoke blasphemously against Him.

Sanhedrin condemned Him — 13th Nisan, Tuesday, Dawn (6:00 AM)

Luke 22:66 And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led Him into their council, saying, it was day — “it was daybreak The Scripture here is screaming! “John 19:14 couldn’t be the same time as in Luke 22:66!” THIS IS DAYBREAK! 6AM! DAWN! THE SIXTH HOUR IN JOHN 19:14 COULDN’T BE ROMAN TIME! “Jesus couldn’t be with the Sanhedrin here and inside the praetorium at the same time!THIS IS DAYBREAK! THIS IS ALREADY 6AM!

The Lord shall smite thee with madness, and blindness, and astonishment of heart; and thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness. That was written for the children of Israel in Deuteronomy 28:28-29 that they should gropeth in the dark. But in the last days, all ten virgins of the endtime Laodicean church blind, wretched and naked are ALL groping in the light!

67 “Art thou the Christ? Tell us.” And He said unto them, “If I tell you, ye will not believe.

68 And if I also ask you, ye will not answer Me nor let Me go.

69 Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God.”

70 Then said they all, “Art thou then the Son of God?” And He said unto them, “Ye say that I am.”

71 And they said, “What need of any further witness? For we ourselves have heard it from his own mouth.”

Judas hung himself — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (7:00-8:00 AM)

Matthew 27:3 Then Judas, who had betrayed Him, when he saw that He was condemned, repented and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,

4 saying, “I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood.” And they said, “What is that to us? See thou to that!”

5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple and departed, and went and hanged himself.

6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces and said, “It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood.”

7 And they took counsel and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in.

8 Therefore that field was called the Field of Blood unto this day.

9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him that was valued, whom they the children of Israel did value,

10 and gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord appointed me.”

The Sanhedrin sent Him to Pilate — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (8:30 AM)

Luke 23:1 And the whole multitude of them arose and led Him unto Pilate.

Before Pilate — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (9:00 AM) — 3rd hour

John 18:28 Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the praetorium (AMP, RSV, YLT, WEB). It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover. — the phases “they” from the “house of Caiaphas” would comprise the chief priests (Caiaphas and Annas), the captains of the temple (Lk 22:52) and their servants. Most in the CoG Communities identify these accusers as solely the Pharisees but evidence here shows this is erroneous.

The chief priests, the captains of the temple and their servants are all known to be Sadducees. This is another proof that the Sadducaic passover haven’t arrived, and they, too, didn’t want to defile themselves by entering a Gentile residence just before their passover where they would have kept it on night of the fourteenth!

This is a solid proof that that night could only be on THE THIRTEENTH!

29 So Pilate went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this man?” 30 They answered him, “If this man were not an evildoer, we would not have handed him over.” — Pilate would have to come out of the praetorium to speak to the multitude and he did “So Pilate went out [of the praetorium] and said” to the crowd!

31 Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.” The Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put any man to death.” 32 This was to fulfil the word which Jesus had spoken to show by what death he was to die.

33 Pilate entered the praetorium again and called Jesus, and said to him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” 34 Jesus answered, “Do you ask this of your own accord, or did others ask it to you about me?” — See, Pilate went back to the praetorium to speak to Jesus.

35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have handed you over to me; what have you done?” 36 Jesus answered, “My kingship is not of this world; if my kingship were of this world, my servants would fight, that I might not be handed over to the Jews; but my kingship is not from the world.” — the chief priests were standing outside the praetorium. “They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover” (John 18:28). So the Sadducees haven’t had their passover yet!

37 Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice.” 

Praetorium - YouTube
Only Jesus was in the Praetorium, the Sadducaic Chief Priests stayed out!

38 Pilate said unto Him, “What is truth?” And when he said this, he went out [the praetorium] again unto the Jews, and said unto them, “I find in him no fault at all. 39 But ye have a custom that I should release unto you one at the Passover. Will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?”

Most like to place the timing of this encounter with Pilate and Herod and then back to Pilate again early morning, around 5.30 to 8.30 AM. But this timing just couldn’t be so.

“How Dare You Trouble Me?” It would be inconceivable or even fanciful to think that Pilate as king of Judea could be troubled in the early morning by someone subordinate to him as traditional protocol demands. Pilate was known as a tyrant and would kill anybody at will those who displeased him. It would be far more reasonable to assume that he attended court at a reasonable hour starting at 9 AM the earliest.

Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting the nation and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ, a king.”

Jesus before Pilate

3 And Pilate asked Him, saying, “Art thou the king of the Jews?” And He answered him and said, “Thou sayest it.”

4 Then said Pilate to the chief priests and the people, “I find no fault in this man.”

5 And they became the more fierce, saying, “He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to this place.” – this stirring includes raising Lazarus from the dead, infuriating the Sadducees more than the Pharisees.

The chief priests could include Annas’ five sons (1 Eleazar ben Ananus 16-17; 2 Jonathan 37; 3 Theophilus 37-41; 4 Matthias 43; 5 Ananus ben Ananus 63-66), who at later times, also held the high priest office. Annas’ son-in-law Caiaphas 18-36-37

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(3) Theophilus ben Ananus 37-41: “A growing belief points to Theophilus ben Ananus, High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem from 37 to 41. In this tradition Theophilus would have been both a kohen and a Sadducee,” (Theophilus (biblical), Wikipedia).

(5) Ananus ben Ananus 63-66: Josephus’s account says “Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees,” (Anti 20.9.1). Wikipedia says he was the Sadducaic high priest who ordered the execution by stoning of James the brother of Jesus. Ananus was deposed as the high priest in 66 and became one of the main leaders of the Great Revolt of Judea. But in 68, he was killed during the inter-rebel civil war in Jerusalem, (Ananus ben Ananus, Wikipedia).

Josephus provides us with more details of the death of the high priesthood toward the AD 66-70 inferno: “But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the city, and plundered every house, and slew every one they met; and for the other multitude, they esteemed it needless to go on with killing them, but they sought for the high priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Ananus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. I should not mistake if I said that the death of Ananus was the beginning of the destruction of the city, and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruin of her affairs, whereon they saw their high priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city,” (Wars. Book 4, Chapter 5).

Luke 23:6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the Man were a Galilean.

7 And as soon as he learned that He belonged unto Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.

Before Herod — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (10:00 AM) — 4th hour

8 And when Herod saw Jesus he was exceedingly glad, for he had been desirous to see Him for a long time, because he had heard many things about Him, and he hoped to see some miracle done by Him. — remember, in those days they only have runners in sending and receiving messages. And protocol required letters were properly written, signed and sealed before they were despatched. 

9 Then he questioned Him with many words, but He answered him nothing.

10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him.

11 And Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, and arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe and sent Him again to Pilate.

12 And on the same day, Pilate and Herod were made friends together, for before that there was enmity between them.

13 And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people,

My Favourite Painting: Jeffrey Archer - Country Life
“I find no fault in this man,” said Pilate

14 said unto them, “Ye have brought this man unto me as one who perverteth the people. And behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man concerning those things whereof ye accuse him.

15 No, nor yet Herod; for I sent you to him, and lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.

16 I will therefore chastise him and release him.” Only Pilate was to scourge Jesus (consistent with John 19:1; Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15)

17 (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the Feast.)

18 And they all cried out at once, saying, “Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas”

19 (who had been cast into prison for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder).

20 Pilate therefore, desiring to release Jesus, spoke again to them.

21 But they cried, saying, “Crucify him, crucify him!”

22 And he said unto them the third time, “Why? What evil hath he done? I have found no cause for death in him. I will therefore chastise him and let him go.” Only Pilate was to scourge Jesus (John 19:1; Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15). The Roman soldiers remained restraint.

23 But they were instant with loud voices, requiring that He might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed.

Pilate: Barabbas or Jesus — 13th Nisan, Tuesday Morning (11:00 AM) — 5th hour

Matthew 27:15 Now at that feast, the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would.

John 18:39 But ye have a custom that I should release unto you one at the Passover. — Not a law, neither of God nor man’s, but a custom, so commentators have swam in an ocean on this point, but nothing to such custom or reason is known.

Pilgrims normally took their trips to Jerusalem early before the actual Passover took place, to secure an accommodation, to buy a lamb and also to purify themselves. The whole period is a Passover season. “And the Jews’ Passover was nigh at hand, and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the Passover to purify themselves.” John 11:55 

16 And they had then a notable prisoner called Barabbas.

17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, “Whom will ye that I release unto you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?”

18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered Him.

19 When he had sat down on the judgment seat [inside the praetorium again], his wife sent unto him, saying, “Have thou nothing to do with that just man; for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.”

20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask for Barabbas and destroy Jesus. the chief priests were always deeply involved throughout, but stayed outside the praetorium with the multitude.

21 The governor answered and said unto them, “Which of the two will ye that I release unto you?” They said, “Barabbas!”

22 Pilate said unto them, “What shall I do then with Jesus, who is called Christ?” They all said unto him, “Let him be crucified!”

23 And the governor said, “Why, what evil hath he done?” But they cried out the more, saying, “Let him be crucified!”

24 When Pilate saw that he could not prevail, but rather that a tumult (disorderly agitation) was beginning, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this just person. See ye to it.”

25 Then answered all the people and said, “His blood be on us, and on our children!”

26 Then released he Barabbas unto them

“Crucify him! Crucify him!” — 13th Nisan, Tuesday (12 NOON) — 6th hour

John 19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus and scourged Him [inside the praetorium].

Only Pilate scourged Jesus here (consistent with Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15); no mentioning of the soldiers doing the scourging before John 19:16.

2 And the soldiers plaited a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe

Crown Of Thorns Stock Footage ~ Royalty Free Stock Videos | Pond5

3 and said, “Hail, King of the Jews!” And they smote Him with their hands.

4 Pilate therefore went forth again and said unto them [to those outside the praetorium], “Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.”5 Then came Jesus [from inside the praetorium] forth, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. And Pilate said unto them, “Behold the man!”

6 When therefore the chief priests and the officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, “Crucify him! Crucify him!” Pilate said unto them, “Ye take him and crucify him, for I find no fault in him.”

7 The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.”

8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid.

9 And he went again into the praetorium and said [in private] unto Jesus, “From whence art thou?” But Jesus gave him no answer.

10 Then said Pilate unto Him, “Speakest thou not unto me? Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?”

11 Jesus answered, “Thou couldest have no power at all against Me, unless it were given thee from above. Therefore he (the chief priests) that delivered Me unto thee hath the greater sin.” — having the greater sin, the Sadducees (some Pharisees included) were wiped out in the AD 70 inferno! Also a result of “His blood be on us, and on our children!”

12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release Him, but the Jews cried out, saying, “If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend. Whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.”

13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth and sat down in the judgment seat (in the praetorium) in a place that is called the Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbath – (an extended elevated pavement by itself in front of the praetorium. This must be the place where a final verdict was made).

14 And it was the Preparation of the Passover and about the sixth hour, and Pilate said unto the Jews, “Behold your king!” (NOON 13th Nisan)

This sixth hour would be the same sixth hour where Jesus talked with the Samaritan woman at the well, established to be at NOON, when Jesus was wearied and needed a drink (John 4:6). To think that John suddenly popped up Roman time to suit a belief is just trying to be fanciful. Like a virgin who suddenly upskirts herself at an intersection, such distraction would surely result in many fatalities among the CoG Communities.

Second, Roman times uses AM (ante meridiem, meaning before midday) and PM (post meridiem, meaning past midday) to denote time. So if John was using Roman time in John 19:14 why didn he use AM and PM? The Hours Usage in John 19:14 is definitly Jewish Reckoning. 

Thirdly, Luke 22:66 says “it was day” — Jesus was at the Sanhedrin at daybreak! He couldn’t be with the Sanhedrin here and inside the praetorium at the same time! “Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit” (Hosea 11:12). And most CoG Communities are prone to lying!

John 19:15 But they cried out, “Away with him, away with him! Crucify him!” Pilate said unto them, “Shall I crucify your king?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar!”

16 Then he delivered Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they (the soldiers, a small number 50-60 say) took Jesus and led Him away.

Matt 27:27 Then the soldiers of the governor [personal soldiers] took Jesus into the praetorium, and gathered unto Him the whole detachment of soldiers. i.e. this small number of the governor’s soldiers led Jesus to the entire contingent of soldiers!

Gill: consisting of five hundred, and some say more: these their fellow soldiers, to whom Jesus was committed, got together “against him” as the Syriac and Persic versions render it.

The TPT version says “nearly six hundred soldiers.” Matthew Henry: (at least five hundred, some think twelve or thirteen hundred)

The soldiers, numbering 500-600, led Him away to be crucified, but first to be flogged, this time by the Roman soldiers, including more scourging and mocking — the missing hours, back at the praetorium (about 18 hours where there is no record of Him; from about NOON on the thirteenth to daybreak on the fourteenth of Nisan). And it is thus obvious that that evening, the evening where Jesus and His disciples were taking supper, were indeed a supper. There is no evidence of a Passover — no lamb, no bitter herbs — not even a Samaritan or a Sadducaic passover, where it would be on an early fourteenth of Nisan. Even the high priests (Annas and Caiapas), chief priests and other Sadducees stayed outside the praetorium lest they be defiled and wouldn’t be able to partake in their passover!

Image result for roman whip

The night before, while He prayed, His blood fell to the ground. He knew He would be flogged nearly to the point of death before they pounded the metal spikes into His flesh. He knew the prophetic words of Isaiah spoken seven centuries earlier that He would be beaten so badly that He would be “disfigured beyond that of any man” and “beyond human likeness” (Isaiah 52:14). 

Forerunner Commentary of the King James Version Isaiah 52:14:

Jesus had to die a death that was excruciatingly painful. Why? To depict the horrible pain that sin causes. It would not have served God’s purpose if He had died a painless death. The picture would have been incomplete.

Any criminal of that time would have despaired to learn he was to be crucified. Crucifixion was not only an execution, but also a method of torture. The Romans usually gave the victim an excruciating scourging first. Jesus was no exception. Before He ever touched His cross, He was scourged, beaten, and insulted.

Image result for roman whipping
Before 500-600 soldiers!

Over the years we have heard quite a bit about the Roman lictor (Roman officer), the soldier charged with dispensing this dreaded punishment. He used a whip, often with imbedded pieces of metal, bone, or other sharp objects. Romans did not limit their lictors to the Israelite practice of “forty stripes save one,” nor to striking just the victim’s back. He would let the whip strike and wrap around every inch of the person’s body until he was within an inch of death.

The prophet Isaiah prophesies how Jesus appeared after the scourging: “Just as many were astonished at you, so His visage [appearance] was marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men” (Isaiah 52:14). He goes on to say that He was “wounded [pierced] for our transgressions, He was bruised [crushed] for our iniquities” (Isaiah 53:5).

Just as there were many who were appalled at him — his appearance was so disfigured beyond that of any human being and his form marred beyond human likeness — Isaiah 52:14.

Many people were shocked when they saw him. He was so scarred that he no longer looked like a person. His body was so twisted that he did not look like a human being anymore (Isaiah 52:14).

And in Isaiah 53:7 Isaiah goes on to describe the servant who would suffer and die for the sin of his people “like a lamb that is led to the slaughter.”

The Jews were prophesied they would mourn One whom they had rejected: “And they shall look to Me whom they have pierced; then they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only son” (Zechariah 12:10). But the Christians have nothing to mourn? Currently these endtime virgins are described as lukewarm and in need of nothing, but would they not mourn when they realise that they had been blind, wretched and naked, seeing finally that Christ had suffered far more through His torn flesh and shed blood than they had ever realised? No? Regardless, these are they being described in Revelation 3:17. “As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: or else I will spew thee out of My mouth (v16,19).”

The Lord shall smite thee with madness, and blindness, and astonishment of heart; and thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness. That was written by Moses for the children of Israel in Deuteronomy 28. But at the endtime, all ten virgins of the Laodicean church — blind, wretched and naked — ALL THESE TEN VIRGINS ARE GROPIING IN THE LIGHT!

The next morning — 14th Nisan, Wednesday, Dawn (6:00 AM)

Luke 23:26 And as they led Him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.

27 And there followed Him a great company of people, and of women who also bewailed and lamented Him.

28 But Jesus, turning unto them, said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for Me, but weep for yourselves and for your children.

29 For behold, the days are coming in which they shall say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore and the breasts which never gave suck.’

30 Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us!’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’

31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?”

They led Him to be crucified — 14th Nisan, Wednesday (7:00 AM)  

John 19:16 Then he delivered Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus and led Him away.

17 And He, bearing His cross, went forth into a place called the Place of a Skull (which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha)

The Third hour — 14th Nisan, Wednesday (9:00 AM) — 3rd hour

John 19:18 where they crucified Him and two others with Him, one on either side and Jesus in the midst. — here, Jesus was nailed to the cross, with two others besides Him

19 And Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was: Jesus Of Nazareth The King Of The Jews.

20 Then many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city, and it was written in Hebrew and Greek and Latin.

21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, “Write not ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘He said, I am King of the Jews.’”

22 Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and also His coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

24 They said therefore among themselves, “Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be,” that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, “They parted My raiment among them, and for My vesture did they cast lots.” These things therefore the soldiers did.

Mark 15:25 And it was the third hour (9 AM) when they crucified Him.

29 And those who passed by railed at Him, wagging their heads and saying, “Ah, thou that destroyest the temple and buildest it in three days,

30 save thyself and come down from the cross!”

31 Likewise also the chief priests, mocking, said among themselves with the scribes, “He saved others; himself he cannot save!

32 Let Christ, the King of Israel, descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe.” And those who were crucified with Him reviled Him.

25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His mother and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.

26 When Jesus therefore saw His mother and the disciple standing by whom He loved, He said unto His mother, “Woman, behold thy son!”

27 Then said He to the disciple, “Behold thy mother!” And from that hour, that disciple took her unto his own home.

Mark 15:33 And when the sixth hour (12 NOON) had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour (3 PM).

Luke 23:44 And it was about the sixth hour (12 NOON), and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour (3 PM). 45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

See the source image

28 After this Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I thirst.”

29 Now there was set there a vessel full of vinegar; and they filled a sponge with vinegar and put it upon a hyssop, and put it to His mouth.

Mark 15:34 And at the ninth hour (3 PM) Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?” which is, being interpreted, “My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?”

35 And some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, “Behold, he calleth Elijah.”

36 And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed and gave it to Him to drink, saying, “Let him alone. Let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.”

37 And Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.

30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, He said, “It is finished.” And He bowed His head and gave up the ghost.

Earthquakes and graves opened — 14th Nisan, Wednesday (3.00 PM) — 9th hour

Matthew 27:51 And behold, the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top to the bottom, and the earth quaked and the rocks rent.

52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints who slept arose,

53 and came out of the graves after His resurrection, and went into the Holy City and appeared unto many.

54 Now when the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, saw the earthquake and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, “Truly, this was the Son of God!”

Preparation for the Passover — 14th Nisan, Wednesday (4:00 PM) — 10th hour

John 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the Preparation, and so that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the Sabbath day (for that Sabbath day was a high day), besought Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away.

32 Then came the soldiers and broke the legs of the first and of the other who was crucified with Him.

33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that He was dead already, they broke not His legs,

34 but one of the soldiers with a spear pierced His side, and forthwith there came out blood and water.

35 And he that saw it bore record, and his record is true, and he knoweth that he saith truly, that ye might believe.

36 For these things were done, that the Scripture should be fulfilled: “A bone of Him shall not be broken.”

37 And again another Scripture saith, “They shall look on Him whom they pierced.”

The women watched — 14th Nisan, Wednesday (4:30 PM)

Mark 15:40 There were also women looking on afar off, among whom were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the Less and of Joses, and Salome

41 (who also, when He was in Galilee, had followed Him and ministered unto Him), and many other women who came up with Him unto Jerusalem.

Joseph of Arimathea — 14th Nisan, Wednesday (5:00 PM) — 11th hour

Mark 15:42 And now when the evening had come, because it was the Preparation (that is, the day before the Sabbath), — that Sabbath was a High Day, the beginning of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

43 Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable council member who also was waiting for the Kingdom of God, came and went in boldly unto Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.

44 And Pilate wondered if He were already dead; and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether He had been any while dead.

45 And when he learned it from the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.

46 And Joseph bought fine linen, and took Him down and wrapped Him in the linen. And he laid Him in a sepulcher which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulcher.

47 And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where He was laid.


End note: Luke 22:15-6. Here Jesus said to the disciples: 

 “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” 

What did He mean by saying “THIS Passover”? 

There are only two possibilities: 

1) He meant the upcoming Passover that very year, which had not yet arrived, as this statement was made “before the feast of the Passover” (John 13:1).

2) He meant that very meal that evening which they were partaking of – even though it was served with regular “bread,” makes no mention of lamb, or bitter herbs, which were required for a Passover meal. Second, if that meal was the Passover, Jesus and His disciples would have broken one of the Passover ordinances specified in Numbers 9:12 moving the bones out of the house and burned them in the morning.

Fred Coulter, whose book The Christian Passover is his church’s flagship and endorsed by most of the CoG Communities, specifies it this way:

 God’s commands to Moses in Exodus 12 show us the step-by-step procedures required for keeping the Old Testament Passover.  It is clear that the act of slaying the lambs was only one part of keeping the Passover.  The nine steps for keeping the Old Testament Passover were as follows: 

1) Select an unblemished male lamb less than one year old on the 10th day of the first month (Ex 12:3).
2) Kill the lamb on the 14th day of the first month at dusk [Hebrew ben ha arbayim, “between the two evenings”]. Share the lamb with a neighbor if one’s own family was too small to eat it. Do not break a bone of the lamb (Ex 12:4, 6, 46).

3) Strike the side posts and lintel of the door of the house with some of the blood (Ex 12:7).
4) Roast the whole lamb — head and legs and edible entrails — with fire (Ex 12:9).
5) Do not boil the meat in water or eat it raw (Ex 12:9).
6) Eat the flesh in that night with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (Ex 12:8).
7) Allow no alien to eat it unless circumcised (Ex 12:43-44).
8) Eat it in the same house where it was slain. Do not carry any of it out of the house (Ex 12:46).
Burn any remains, such as the bones and fat, the skin and guts, with fire by morning (Ex 12:10). (The Christian Passover, pg 19)

These were the commands of God for Israel’s first Passover.  If the children of Israel had not observed all nine steps for the Passover exactly as God commanded, the Passover would not have been fully “kept,” and the Lord would not have spared the firstborn of Israel.

At their next Passover, the first one in the wilderness after the tabernacle was set up and dedicated, the nine rules for “keeping” the Passover are called statutes and ordinances: “Let the children of Israel also keep the Passover at its appointed time.  In the fourteenth day of this month, between the two evenings, you shall keep it in its appointed time. You shall keep it according to ALL ITS STATUTES, and according to ALL THE ORDINANCES of it” (Num. 9:2-3). 

This Scripture shows that the nine rules for the Passover, here called statutes and ordinances, were to be observed in all the years that followed.  All nine ordinances were to be observed on the 14th day of the month!  It is quite clear in Numbers 9 that all the statutes and all the ordinances that were established at the first Passover were to be observed by the children of Israel.  We find no later instructions given in Scripture that in any way alter or modify the manner in which the Passover was originally commanded to be observed. (The Christian Passover, pg 19-20)

And Fred’s statements are reemphasised further: 

“And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning [sunrise]” (Ex 12:21-22),” (pg 58).

And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until sunrise [Hebrew boqer]’ ” (Ex 12:21-22). (Pg 71)

“…And none of you shall go out of the door of his house UNTIL SUNRISE….And the children of Israel went away and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, SO THEY DID” (Ex 12:22, 28).

“If any of the children of Israel had left their houses before morning, it would be recorded in the Scriptures that some of the people had disobeyed the command of God and had left their houses too soon, and therefore they had died in the plague of the firstborn.” (Pg 72)

The Blind couldn’t see, of course! If that night had been the Passover, that would make Jesus and His disciples break a Passover ordinance since they were only allowed to burn the bones and left their house in the morning, BUT THEY DIDN’T! 

What, then, did Jesus mean when He said, “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer”? The word for “desire” in this verse is an unusual word, epithumia in the Greek, and means “a longing, especially for that which is forbidden” (see Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, #1939). 

The word for “desire” in this verse is very important to understanding the context of Jesus’ words. Says Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon, “desire, craving, longing,” “specifically for what is forbidden.” This is the “strongest expression of intense desire,” whether good or bad, says the Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Critical-Experimental Commentary. 

In other words, Jesus here was saying He desired to eat the traditional Passover with His disciples that year, but He knew that such a thing will be impossible that it was forbidden that for Him to fulfill God’s PLAN He must be dead and in the grave the evening the Passover would be eaten, and therefore it was forbidden and impossible for Him to eat that Passover with them!

Second, Christ also wanted to avoid this “cup” of suffering that He knew He had to endure. He pleaded for three hours, but both requests were denied, forbidden.

Perhaps Luke 22:15-6 should be translated as:

“With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; but I’m saying to you now, I am forbidden and denied this privilege, and I will no longer eat with you until we’re all in the kingdom of God.” 

Conclusion: despite all the huffings and puffings arguing otherwise by the various CoG Communities, that night when Jesus and His disciples had their last supper, the same night He was betrayed, it wasn’t the Passover; it wasn’t on the Fourteenth night.  IT COULDN’T BE! — IT’S IMPOSSIBLE! It was just a supper as the Scriptures say, and to believe that that night was the Fourteenth is only a sweet FANCIFUL DREAM!


~ by Joel Huan on June 25, 2021.


  1. […] — that night, the night the Son was betrayed, he had two desires but his requests were denied (1) his desire to eat the Passover with his disciples; (2) his desire for the “cup” to be removed from him (for more see THAT NIGHT COULDN’T BE THE FOURTEENTH!) […]


  3. […] — that night, the night he was betrayed, he had two desires but his requests were denied (1) his desire to eat the Passover with his disciples; (2) his desire for the “cup” to be removed from him (for more see THAT NIGHT COULDN’T BE THE FOURTEENTH! […]

  4. […] since the crucifixion was on the fourteenth, the time at the praetorium had to be on a day before, ON THE THIRTEENTH. Then they led Him away to be crucified, but first to be flogged, including mocking and scourging […]

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